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Table 1 Demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with COVID-19

From: Abnormal immunity of non-survivors with COVID-19: predictors for mortality

  Total (539) Non-survivor (125) Survivor (414) P value
Age (years) 58 (43–69) 70 (61.5–80) 54 (37–65) < 0.0001
Gender     0.015
 Male 255 (47.3%) 71 (56.8%) 184 (44.4%)  
 Female 284 (52.7%) 54 (43.2%) 230 (55.6%)  
Chronic medical illness 242 (44.9%) 88 (70.4%) 154 (37.2%) < 0.0001
Chronic obstructive lung disease 22 (4.1%) 12 (9.6%) 10 (2.4%) < 0.0001
Diabetes 58 (10.9%) 25 (20.0%) 34 (8.2%) < 0.0001
Hypertention 140 (26.0%) 62 (49.6%) 78 (18.8%) < 0.0001
Coronary heart disease 37 (6.9%) 20 (16.0%) 17 (4.1%) < 0.0001
Cerebrovascular diseases 19 (3.5%) 15 (12.0%) 4 (1.0%) < 0.0001
Hepatitis 11 (2.0%) 3 (2.4%) 8 (1.9%) 0.746
Malignant tumour 23 (4.3%) 11 (8.8%) 12 (2.9%) 0.0042
Chronic kidney disease 8 (1.5%) 6 (4.8%) 2 (0.5%) 0.0005
Immunodeficiency disease 2 (0.4%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.5%) 0.436
Time from illness onset to death or discharge, days 13 (7–20) 7 (4–11) 15 (9–21) < 0.0001
Signs and symptoms at admission
 Fever 420 (77.9%) 110 (88%) 310 (74.9) 0.001
 Rhinorrhoea 6 (1.1%) 2 (1.6%) 4 (1.0%) 0.945
 Cough 332 (61.6%) 81 (64.8%) 251 (60.6%) 0.402
 Expectoration 161 (29.9%) 48 (38.4%) 113 (27.3%) 0.017
 Chest tightness 187 (34.7%) 73 (58.4%) 114 (27.5%) < 0.0001
 Dyspnea 187 (34.7%) 78 (62.4%) 98 (23.7%) < 0.0001
 Fatigue 261 (48.4%) 78 (62.4%) 183 (44.2%) < 0.0001
 Nausea 9 (1.7%) 5 (4.0%) 4 (1.0%) 0.02
 Diarrhea 58 (10.8%) 8 (6.4%) 50 (12.1%) 0.073
Clinical Classification     < 0.0001
 Non-severe 133 (24.7%) 2 (1.6%) 131 (31.6%)  
 Severe 406 (75.3%) 123 (98.4%) 283 (68.4%)  
Treatment
 Antibiotic drug 374 (69.4%) 118 (94.4%) 256 (61.8%) < 0.0001
 Antiviral therapy or Chinese Medicine 225 (41.7%) 58 (46.4%) 167 (40.3%) 0.228
 Lianhua Qingwen 301 (55.8%) 40 (32.0%) 261 (63.0%) <  0.0001
 Oseltamivir 157 (29.1%) 48 (38.4%) 109 (26.3%) 0.0092
 Arbidol 370 (68.6%) 65 (52.0%) 305 (73.7%) < 0.0001
 Lopinavir/ritonavir 32 (5.9%) 18 (14.4%) 14 (3.4%) < 0.0001
 Human immunoglobulin 250 (38.4%) 91 (72.8%) 159 (38.4%) < 0.0001
 Alpha-interferon 170 (31.5%) 34 (27.2%) 136 (32.9%) 0.233
 Thymosin 59 (10.9%) 20 (16.0%) 39 (9.4%) 0.039
 Glucocorticoids 249 (46.2%) 89 (71.2%) 160 (38.6%) < 0.0001
  1. Data are median (IQR) and n (%). P values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. Statistical significance was determined at P<0.05
  2. COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019