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Table 2 Risk factors analyses for morbidity associated with urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis upon detection of microhematuria and faecal occult blood, respectively

From: An outbreak of intestinal schistosomiasis, alongside increasing urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence, in primary school children on the shoreline of Lake Malawi, Mangochi District, Malawi

Prevalence (%) [95% CI] Microhematuria Faecal occult blood (FOB)
31.5 [27.5–35.5] 16.2 [11.0–21.4]
Sample size n = 520 n = 191α
Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) [P-value] Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) [P-value] Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) [P-value] Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) [P-value]
Urine-CCA testβ Negative 1 1 1 1
Positive 2.0 (1.4–3.0)
[<  0.01]
1.2 (0.6–2.6)
[0.61]
12.9 (4.3–38.7)
[<  0.01]
9.2 (3.0–28.6)
[<  0.01]
Ova-patent intestinal schistosomiasis (Kato-Katz) Negative 1 1 1 1
Positive 2.2 (1.0–4.7)
[0.06]
3.0 (1.0–8.6)
[0.04]
11.4 (3.9–33.3)
[<  0.01]
6.7 (2.0–22.6)
[<  0.01]
Ova-patent urogenital schistosomiasis (urine filtration) Negative 1 1 1 1
Positive 42.1 (23.2–76.5)
[<  0.01]
47.9 (22.6–101.5)
[<  0.01]
1.6 (0.7–3.8)
[0.25]
1.5 (0.5–4.9)
[0.49]
Praziquantel treatment in last 12 months No 1 1 1 1
Yes 0.7 (0.5–1.1)
[0.16]
0.7 (0.3–1.8)
[0.45]
0.5 (0.2–1.3)
[0.16]
0.8 (0.3–2.3)
[0.65]
Gender Male 1 1 1 1
Female 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
[0.85]
0.9 (0.5–1.8)
[0.82]
1.1 (0.5–2.3)
[1.00]
1.0 (0.4–2.4)
[0.97]
Age (years) 6–10 1 1 1 1
11–15 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
[0.71]
1.2 (0.6–2.3)
[0.63]
1.1 (0.507–2.4)
[0.81]
0.9 (0.3–2.3)
[0.78]
  1. α all total of 200 FOB tests were available being used at Samama, Mchoka and MOET schools;
  2. β a trace result was considered here as not infected, only + ve urine CCA-dipstick scorings were considered infected; our conservative approach was based upon correlates of urine CCA-dipsticks and duplicate Kato-Katz comparisons, with ova-patent prevalence of S. mansoni being ≥ 20%, see Bärenbold et al. [12]