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Table 4 Univariate and bivariate Moran statistics between raw and smoothed dengue incidence rates and social indicators. Northeast, Brazil, 2014–2017

From: Spatiotemporal dynamics, risk areas and social determinants of dengue in Northeastern Brazil, 2014–2017: an ecological study

Indicator Univariate Moran’s I (P-value) Bivariate Moran’s I (P-value)
Raw rate Smoothed rate
Raw dengue incidence rate 0.3104 (P = 0.001)*
Smoothed dengue incidence rate 0.3229 (P = 0.001)*
a. Population
 % urban population 0.0377 (P = 0.02)* 0.0021 (P = 0.32) 0.0019 (P = 0.33)
 Population density (inhab/km2) 0.1079 (P = 0.002)* 0.0134 (P = 0.04)* 0.0136 (P = 0.03)*
b. Education
 % of people aged 6 to 14 who do not attend school 0.1603 (P < 0.001)* 0.0159 (P = 0.01)* 0.0163 (P = 0.01)*
 Illiteracy rate of individuals aged 18 or over 0.4016 (P < 0.001)* 0.0233 (P < 0.001)* 0.2318 (P = 0.004)*
 % of people aged 18 or over without complete elementary education and in informal occupation 0.1600 (P < 0.001)* 0.0286 (P = 0.002)* 0.0293 (P = 0.002)*
c. Income
 Average income of the employed 0.2166 (P < 0.001)* 0.0087 (P = 0.09) 0.0087 (P = 0.09)
 % of income from work 0.02783 (P < 0.001)* 0.0272 (P = 0.001)* 0.0275 (P = 0.001)*
 % of people aged 15 to 24 who do not study, do not work and have a per capita household income equal to or less than half the minimum wage (2010) 0.1600 (P < 0.001)* 0.0286 (P = 0.001)* 0.0293 (P = 0.001)*
d. Housing
 % of households with access to piped water 0.2995 (P < 0.001)* − 0.0356 (P = 0.005)* − 0.0349 (P = 0.005)*
 % of households with access to electricity 0.4378 (P < 0.001)* 0.0838 (P = 0.002)* 0.0841 (P = 0.002)*
e. Social vulnerability
 % of mothers who are heads of household without elementary school and with minor children, in the total of mothers who are heads of families 0.4378 (P < 0.001)* 0.0972 (P = 0.002)* 0.0978 (P = 0.002)*
 % of vulnerable people who spend more than an hour to work among the employed population 0.3793 (P < 0.001)* − 0.0031 (P = 0.31) − 0.0035 (P = 0.29)
  1. *Statistically significant (P < 0.05); %: Percentage