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Table 1 Infection and characteristics of Blastocystis in humans

From: Epidemiology of Blastocystis infection from 1990 to 2019 in China

No Author, year, reference number Study area (years of the survey) Study design Age range /mean or median Sex (n) Participants No. positive (prevalence) Method of diagnosis Primer sequence (amplification length) Subtypes (n) Clinical manifestation (n/N) Blastocystis subtypes in patients with diarrhea (n)
1 Li et al. 2007, [20] Shanghai (2006) Cross-sectional observational study 2–96 years/– NA 1505 people living in villages 29 (1.93%) PCR NA ST1 (6), ST2 (1), ST3 (17), ST6 (1), ST1 + ST3 (2), Unknown (2) NA NA
2 Li et al. 2007, [20] Eryuan county, Yunnan (2005) Cross-sectional observational study 5–57 years/– NA 407 people from villages 75 (18.43%) PCR NA ST1 (22), ST2 (6), ST3 (38), ST1 + ST3 (5), ST2 + ST3 (1), Unknown (3) NA NA
3 Li et al. 2007, [20] Yongjia county, Zhejiang (2006) Cross-sectional observational study 4 months to 90 years/– NA 170 in-patients 10 (5.88%) PCR NA ST1 (3), ST2 (1), ST3 (6) NA NA
4 Gong and Liu 2019, [21] Mengla county, Yunnan (2014) Cross-sectional observational study 21–72 years/– NA 289 Yao people from villages 13 (4.50%) PCR NA (260 bp) ST1 (3), ST3 (8), ST4 (1), Unknown (1) Diarrhea (6/29a), abdominal pain (2/29a) NA
5 Zhou et al. 2019, [22] Rural permanent population in Henan (2015) Cross-sectional observational study 1–101 years/ 38.95 years Male (3191), female (3515) 6706 residents of Qinba Mountains Ecological Zone 3 (0.04%) Iodine NA NA NA NA
6 Zhang et al. 2016, [23] Kunming city,  Yunnan (2014–2015) Case-control study Diarrhea cases (1121): 0–6 months (186), 6–12 months (263), 1–2 years (269), 2–5 years (132), 5–65 years (244), > 65 years (27) Diarrhea cases (1121): male (559), female (562). Non-diarrhea cases (319): male (165), female (154) 1121 diarrhea cases and 319 non-diarrhea cases from hospitals Diarrhea cases: 47 (4.19%), non-diarrhea cases: 11 (3.44%) PCR Forward primer (5′-CGAATGGCTCATTATATCAGTT-3′), reverse primer (5′-TCTTCGTTACCCGTTACTGC-3′), (1100 bp) Diarrhea cases: ST1 (46), ST2 (1)
non-diarrhea cases: ST1 (11)
Diarrhea cases: vomiting (263/1121), dehydration (64/1121) Diarrhea cases: ST1 (46), ST2 (1)
7 He 2013, [24] Bama Yao autonomous county, Guangxi (2011) Cross-sectional observational study 2–80 years/– Male (253), female (244) 497 local residents 215 (43.26%) Improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation /PCRb Forward primer (F): 5′-GAAGGACTCTCTGACGATGA-3′, reverse primer (R): 5′-GTCCAAATGAAAGGCAGC-3′ (351 bp); F: 5′-ATCAGCCTACAATCTCCTC-3′, R: 5′-ATCGCCACTTCTCCAAT-3′ (650 bp); F: 5′-TAGGATTTGGTGTTTGGAGA-3′, R: 5′-TTAGAAGTGAAGGAGATGGAAG-3′ (526 bp) ST1 (25), ST6 (1), ST1 + ST6 (1), Unknown (78) NA NA
8 Yang 2011, [25] Beihai city and Qinzhou city, Guangxi (2010) Cross-sectional observational study 6 months to 91 years Male (702), female (664) 1366 rural permanent population 360 (36.35%) Improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation /PCRc Forward primer (F): 5′-GAAGGACTCTCTGACGATGA-3′, reverse primer (R): 5′-GTCCAAATGAAAGGCAGC-3′ (351 bp); F: 5′-ATCAGCCTACAATCTCCTC-3′, R: 5 -ATCGCCACTTCTCCAAT-3′ (650 bp); F: 5′-TAGGATTTGGTGTTTGGAGA-3′, R: 5′-TTAGAAGTGAAGGAGATGGAAG-3′ (526 bp) ST1 (12), ST3 (2), ST4 (1), ST6 (1), ST7 (3), ST1 + others (6), Unknown (12) NA NA
9 Wang 2015, [26] Guangxi (2013–2014) Cross-sectional observational study HIV/AIDS patients: 21–85 years/mean 48.6, general population: 18–81 years/mean 46.6 HIV/AIDS patients: male (216), female (69), general population: male (101), female (49) 285 HIV/AIDS patients, 150 general population HIV/AIDS patients: 59 (20.70%), general population: 38 (25.33%) Improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation NA NA NA NA
10 Tian et al. 2012, [27] Fuyang city, Anhui (2008) Case-control study HIV positives: 6–65 years/mean 42.8 years, HIV negative individuals: 6–65 years/mean 41.5 years HIV positives: 143 males and 159 females, 303 HIV negative Individuals: 144 males and 159 females 302 HIV positives, 303 HIV negative Individuals HIV positives: 49 (16.23%), HIV negative Individuals: 67 (22.11%) In vitro culture NA NA NA NA
11 Teng et al. 2018, [28] Tengchong city, Yunnan (2016–2017) Cross-sectional observational study 10–74 years/mean 40.4 years HIV positives: male (157), female (167) 324 12 (3.70%) PCR Forward primer: 5′-GGAGGTAGTGACAATAA-ATC-3′; reverse primer: 5′-ACTAGGAATTCCTCGTTC-ATG-3′ (1100 bp) ST1 (3), ST3 (2), ST4 (3), ST7 (3), ST12 (1) Diarrhea (3/12) ST1 (2), ST12 (1)
12 Li et al. 2015, [29] Gushi county, Henan (2012) Cross-sectional observational study  ≤ 60 years old (153), > 60 years old (188)/median 62 years Male (249), female (120) 369 Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis treatment 22 (5.96%) In vitro culture NA NA NA NA
13 Zhang et al. 2017, [30] Harbin city, Heilongjiang (2016–2017) Cross-sectional observational study 25 to 84 years Male (220), female (161) 381 cancer patients: lung (90), stomach (88), colorectal (49), liver (47), esophagus (29), breast (28), hematologic (22), other types of cancer (28) 27 (7.09%) PCR NA (600 bp) ST1 (12), ST3 (15) Diarrhea (14/27) ST1 (8), ST3 (6)
14 Hu et al. 2015, [31] Nanning city, Guangxi (2013–2014) Cross-sectional observational study 5 to 79 years Male (378), female (305) 683 tumor patients: Digestive system (228), respiratory system (189), urinary system (128), nervous system (87), other tumor patients (51) Smear: 29(4.25%), improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation: 83 (12.15%) Smear/improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation NA NA NA NA
15 Hu et al. 2017, [32] Nanning city, Guangxi (2016) Cross-sectional observational study  < 42 years old (310), ≥ 42 years old (603) Male (367), female (546) 913 patients with chronic diseases Smear: 30 (3.29%), improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation: 137 (15.01%) Smear/improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation NA NA Diarrhea (80), abdominal pain (71), anorexia (51), nausea and vomiting (34), wasting (42), fever (27) NA
  1. NA not available, – not applicable
  2. aNumber of symptomatic cases among patients infected with Blastocystis at China-Myanmar border
  3. b105 samples of positive samples were cultured and PCR tested
  4. c37 of the positive samples were tested by PCR