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Table 2 Infection and characteristics of Blastocystis in animals in China

From: Epidemiology of Blastocystis infection from 1990 to 2019 in China

No Author, year, reference number Study area (years of the survey) Hosts (age or gender) No. positive Prevalence (%) Method of diagnosis Sequence of primers (Product size) Subtypes (n)
1 Nong et al. 2012, [33] Guangxi (2010) 150 Rhesus monkeys (2.5–4 years) 29 19.33 Improved acid ether centrifugal sedimentation NA NA
2 Zhao et al. 2017, [34] Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, (2015–2016) 497 Wild animals: 127 Nonhuman primates, 158 Artiodactyla, 18 Perissodactyla, 3 Proboscidae, 11 Marsupialia, 135 Aves, 45 Carnivora (NA) Wild animals: 200/497, Nonhuman primates: 96/127, Artiodactyla: 89/158, Perissodactyla: 4/18, Proboscidae: 0/3, Marsupialia: 8/11, Aves: 3/135, Carnivora: 0/45 Wild animals: 40.24, Nonhuman primates: 75.59, Artiodactyla: 56.33, Perissodactyla: 22.22, Proboscidae: 0.00, Marsupialia: 72.73, Aves: 2.22, Carnivora: 0.00 PCR 5′-GGAAGCTTATCTGGTTGAT CCTGCCAGTA-3’
5′-GGGATCCTGATCCTTCCG CAGGTTCACCTAC-3′ (1800 bp);
5′-GGAGGTAGTGACAATAAATC-3’
5′-ACTAGGAATTCCTCGTTCATG-3′ (1100 bp)
ST1 (32), ST2 (13), ST3 (12), ST5 (2), ST10 (77), ST12 (5), ST13 (37), ST14 (17), ST18* (1), ST19* (1), ST20* (1), ST21* (1), ST22* (1)
3 Zhang et al. 2015, [35] Zhouzhi county, Xi’an city, Shaanxi (2008) 63 captive breeding crested ibis (1:1 male to female ratio) 6/63 9.52 Smear/Iodine NA NA
4 Deng et al. 2019, [36] Sichuan (2017–2018) 81 giant pandas (< 1.5 years: 4, 1.5–5.5 years: 23, > 5 years: 54. Male 31, female 50, 23 red pandas, 64 birds Giant pandas: 10/81, red pandas: 2/23, birds: 7/64 Giant pandas: 12.35, red pandas: 8.69, birds: 10.94 PCR Forward primer: 5′-GGAGGTA GTGACAATAAATC-3′, reverse primer: 5′-TGCTTTCGCACTTG TTCATC-3′, (600 bp) Giant pandas: ST1 (10), red pandas: ST1 (2), birds: ST8 (7)
5 Wang et al. 2018, [37] Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Jilin (2015–2017) 1080 mammals, 185 birds Mammals: 41/1080,
birds: 13/185
Mammals: 3.80,
birds: 7.02
PCR Forward primer: 5′-GGAGGTA GTGACAATAAATC-3′, reverse primer: 5′-TGCTTTCGCACTTG TTCATC-3′, (600 bp) Mammals: ST1 (5); ST3 (3); ST4 (13); ST7 (1); ST10 (13); ST13 (4); ST14 (2), birds: ST6 (8); ST7 (5)
6 Wang et al. 2018, [38] Hionglongjiang (2010–2016) Pig: 68, cattle: 147, sheep: 109 and goats:13 Pig: 6/68, cattle: 14/147, sheep: 6/109 and goats: 0/13 Pig: 8.82, cattle: 9.52, sheep: 5.50 PCR Forward primer: 5′-GGAGGTA GTGACAATAAATC-3′, reverse primer: 5′-TGCTTTCGCACTTG TTCATC-3′, (600 bp) Pig: ST5 (6), cattle: ST3 (2), ST10 (10), ST14 (2), sheep: ST1 (1), ST5 (1), ST10 (3), ST14 (1)
7 Song et al. 2017, [39] Shaanxi (2014–2016) Dairy goats: 362, meat goats: 193, cashmere goats: 234 Dairy goats: 196/362, meat goats: 78/193, cashmere goats: 184/234 Dairy goats: 54.14, meat goats: 40.41, cashmere goats: 78.63 PCR Forward primer: 5′-GGAGGTA GTGACAATAAATC-3′, reverse primer: 5′-TGCTTTCGCACTTG TTCATC-3′, (600 bp) Dairy goats: ST1 (1), ST3 (1), ST5 (28), ST10 (132), ST14 (33), novel (1). Meat goats: ST10 (37), ST14 (41). Cashmere goats: ST4 (9), ST5 (3), ST10 (123), ST14 (49)
8 Zhu et al. 2017, [40] Daqing city, Qiqihar city, Harbin city, Heilongjiang (2013–2014) 526 cattle: < 3 months (n = 69), 3–12 months (n = 61), and aged > 12 months (n = 66) Cattle:54/526. Daqing city: 9/140, Qiqihar city: 0/190, Harbin city: 45/196 Cattle (10.27). Daqing city: 6.43, Qiqihar city: 0.00, Harbin city: 22.96 Nested PCR RD3 (5′-GGGATCCTGATCCTTC CGCAGGTTCACCTAC-3′) and RD5 (5′-GGAAGCTTATCTGGTT GATCCTGCCAGTA-3′) (1780 bp)
2F (55 -GGGATCCTGATCCTTC GT-3′) and 2R (5′-AGCTTTTT AACTGCAACAACG-3′), (600 bp)
Daqing city: ST10 (3), ST14 (6), Harbin city: ST4 (2), ST5 (1), ST10 (38), ST14 (4)
9 Ren et al. 2019, [41] Qinghai (2016–2017) 1027 yaks (≤ 6 months: 48, > 6 months: 979) Yaks: 278/1027 27.07 Nested PCR NA ST10 (170), ST12 (38), ST14 (70)
10 Li et al. 2019, [42] Zhejiang, Anhui, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, Jiangxi (2015–2018) 346 cats (151 males and 195 females. ≤ 12 months (60) and > 12 months (286) 2/346, Blastocystis was only observed in Lu’an, Anhui (22.2%, 2/9) 0.57 PCR NA ST1 (2)
11 Xiao et al. 2019, [43] Enshi county, Hubei (2017) 69 flying squirrels (3 fecal samples per animal) Fecal samples: 63/207, flying squirrels 21/69 30.43 Nested PCR RD5: 5′-GGAAGCTTATCTGGTTG ATCCTGCCAGTA-3′, RD3: 5′-GG GATCCTGATCCTTCCGC AGGTT CACCTAC-3′, (1800 bp);
RDII5: 5′-GGAGGTAGTGACAAT AAATC-3′, RDII3: 5′-ACTAGGAA TTCCTCGTTCATG-3′, (1100 bp)
ST1 (24), ST3 (12), ST13 (27)
  1. NA not available