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Table 2 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Out-of-pocket payments and economic consequences from tuberculosis care in eastern China: income inequality

VariableTotal (n = 435)Income quartilesaP-value
Q1 (n = 104)Q2 (n = 113)Q3 (n = 109)Q4 (n = 109)
Age group in years (%)     < 0.001
 < 40118 (27.1)7 (6.7)31 (27.4)40 (36.7)40 (36.7) 
 40–60169 (38.9)43 (41.3)51 (45.1)36 (33.0)39 (35.8) 
 ≥ 60148 (34.0)54 (51.9)31 (27.4)33 (30.3)30 (27.5) 
Male (%)327 (75.2)83 (79.8)82 (72.6)77 (70.6)85 (78.0)0.352
Education level (%)     0.011
 Illiterate or semi-illiterate89 (20.5)29 (27.9)17 (15.0)25 (22.9)18 (16.5) 
 Primary school112 (25.7)30 (28.8)31 (27.4)21 (19.3)30 (27.5) 
 Middle school160 (36.8)37 (35.6)43 (38.1)47 (43.1)33 (30.3) 
 High school49 (11.3)8 (7.7)16 (14.2)9 (8.3)16 (14.7) 
 College and above25 (5.7)0 (0.0)6 (5.3)7 (6.4)12 (11.0) 
Residence (%)     0.005
 Urban109 (25.1)16 (15.4)23 (20.4)33 (30.3)37 (33.9) 
 Rural326 (74.9)88 (84.6)90 (79.6)76 (69.7)72 (66.1) 
Primary breadwinner (%)     0.341
 Yes273 (62.9)72 (69.2)72 (64.3)66 (60.6)63 (57.8) 
 No161 (37.1)32 (30.8)40 (35.7)43 (39.4)46 (42.2) 
Marital status (%)     0.001
 Unmarried68 (15.6)9 (8.7)17 (15.0)24 (22.0)18 (16.5) 
 Married310 (71.3)76 (73.1)73 (64.6)76 (69.7)85 (78.0) 
 Divorced24 (5.5)10 (9.6)12 (10.6)1 (0.9)1 (0.9) 
 Widowed33 (7.6)9 (8.7)11 (9.7)8 (7.3)5 (4.6) 
Place of registration (%)     <0.001
 Integrated hospital283 (65.1)35 (33.7)66 (58.4)84 (77.1)98 (89.9) 
 Local CDC152 (34.9)69 (66.3)47 (41.6)25 (22.9)11 (10.1) 
Insurance (%)     0.002
 UEBMI31 (7.1)1 (1.0)5 (4.4)11 (10.1)14 (12.8) 
 URBMI43 (9.9)4 (3.8)9 (8.0)16 (14.7)14 (12.8) 
 NCMS338 (77.7)94 (90.4)91 (80.5)78 (71.6)75 (68.8) 
 Others23 (5.2)5 (4.8)8 (7.1)4 (3.7)6 (5.5) 
TB category (%)     0.626
 New case395 (90.8)94 (90.4)100 (88.5)102 (93.6)99 (90.8) 
 Relapse case40 (9.2)10 (9.6)13 (11.5)7 (6.4)10 (9.2) 
Sputum status at diagnosis (%)     0.053
 Undetected16 (3.8)3 (2.9)6 (5.6)0 (0.0)7 (6.5) 
 Positive132 (31.1)27 (26.0)30 (27.8)36 (33.6)39 (36.1) 
 Negative277 (65.2)72 (69.2)72 (66.7)71 (66.4)62 (57.4) 
HIV (%)     0.569
 Positive1 (0.2)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.9) 
 Negative97 (22.5)24 (23.1)21 (18.6)23 (21.1)29 (26.6) 
 Unknown333 (77.3)79 (76.0)89 (78.8)86 (78.9)79 (72.5) 
Comorbidityb (%)     0.226
 Yes274 (62.9)50 (48.1)39 (34.5)42 (38.5)43 (39.4) 
 No161 (37.1)54 (51.9)74 (65.5)67 (61.5)66 (60.6) 
  1. aIncome quartiles are arranged from lower to higher (Q1 = lower; Q4 = higher)
  2. bComorbidity indicates TB with one or more of the following diseases: diabetes, chronic liver diseases, chronic renal disease, anaemia, hypertension and other chronic disease.
  3. Abbreviations: CDC Centers for Disease Control, UEBMI Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI Urban Residents’ Basic Medical Insurance, NCMS New Cooperative Medical System, Q1 1st Quartiles, Q2 2nd Quartiles, Q3 3rd Quartiles, Q4 4th Quartiles