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Table 3 Co-infections in patients with loiasis

From: Loiasis in sub-Saharan migrants living in Spain with emphasis of cases from Equatorial Guinea

 Total, N (%)
Filarial co-infection*
Mansonella perstans50 (36.6)
Onchocerca volvulus7 (5.3)
Mansonella perstans + Onchocerca volvulus12 (9.2)
Mansonella perstans + Onchocerca volvulus + Mansonella streptocerca3 (2.3)
Mansonella perstans + Mansonella streptocerca + Wuchereria bancrofti1 (0.8)
Others helminthic co-infection
Trichuris trichiura**34 (26.0)
Ascaris lumbricoides**20 (15.3)
Hookworms11 (8.4)
Strongyloides stercoralis**4 (3.1)
Schistosoma spp.***0
Protozoa co-infection
Plasmodium sp22 (16.8)
Cyclospora cayetanensis**1 (0.8)
Giardia lamblia**0
Viruses co-infection
 HIV16 (12.2)
 HCV10 (7.6)
 HBV4 (3.1)
Bacterial co-infection
Treponema pallidum4 (3.1)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis3 (2.3)
Mycobacterium leprae1 (0.8)
Mycoses co-infection
 Cutaneous mycosis5 (3.8)
  1. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, HCV Hepatitis C virus, HBV Hepatitis B virus
  2. * Knott technique and/or skin nips ** coproculture, ***eggs in stool or urine