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Table 3 Social innovation as an outcome

From: The application of social innovation in healthcare: a scoping review

Theme Author Model Country Innovator Location of delivery Scope and beneficiaries Components Reported outcomes
Care models Kreitzer et al. (2015), [76] Buurtzog (Neighbourhood Care Model) Netherlands A Dutch nurse
(Jos de Blok)
Community 630 nursing teams (7188 nurses), 55 000 clients
Overcoming costly, fragmented home care through:
Self-directed, empowered and autonomous nursing teams providing a range of comprehensive services in a relationally oriented way that would achieve patient independence
One-cost fee for service with limited managerial staff to keep administrative overhead to a minimum
A digital intranet to connect all nurses and perform scheduling, billing, documentation and outcome monitoring
↑ Health worker motivation
↑ Patient outcomes & satisfaction
↓ Fee for service
Henry et al. (2017), [80] iMOKO Innovation New Zealand A Maori medical doctor
(Lance O’ Sullivan)
Community 3800 school-aged children from Maori indigenous group Overcoming lack of access to care to do place, cultural incongruency and cost of services through:
A digital application to support diagnosis and treatment of school-aged children by linking community professionals (eg. teachers) to network of primary care doctors
Teachers act as main custodian of school children health
↑ Community ownership over health in line with collectivist cultural values
↓ In indirect costs of accessing care via in person doctor consultation
↑ Affordability of care
↑ Appropriateness of in-person consultations
Merkel et al. (2018), [70] Gesundes Kinzigtal (Healthy Kinzigtal) Germany   Facility   Overcoming fragmented and uncoordinated care through the HK integrated care programme
A joint venture between a network of physicians and healthcare management company to extend health services
Model supported by two sickness funds and a network 150 partners including allied health services, sports clubs, and self-support groups
Outcome-oriented financial approach: profit only made if cost margins of population goes down ie. outcomes improve
Provider training in supporting patient self-management and shared decision making
Patient accountability through a patient advisory board, satisfaction surveys and patient ombudsman
↑ Patient outcomes
↓ In health expenditure
Vijay et al. (2018), [86] Kerala Community Palliative Care India Indian medical doctors & volunteers Community 230 community organizations (85 doctors, 270 nurses 15 000 volunteers, 26 000 social health activist providing care to 70 000 people across 143 villages (2012) Overcoming access to end of life services and the restrictions of a hospice-based approach:
A hub-and spoke model linking community organizations to clinics
Non-medical professionals, community volunteers, deliver palliative services
Services delivered directly in people’s home
↑ Access to of care
↑ Affordability of care
↑ Awareness of palliative care
Windrum et al. (2018), [77] Therapeutic Patient Education Austria   Facility   Restructuring chronic disease diabetes care according to a patient-centred approach comprised of:
Training diabetes educators (different health professionals) and specialist physicians’ postgraduate course
Engaging professional associations to set standardised processes for diabetes care and ensuring compliances
Including the services as core to the Social Health Insurance fund
↑ Patient knowledge & self-management
↑ Healthy lifestyle behaviour in diabetics
Srinivas et al. (2020), [63] Learner Treatment Kit
Self-collection for HPV Screening
Save the Children & Malawi Ministry of Health
University research team
Community School age children
in 58 schools
643 low-income women
Addressing underdiagnosis of malaria in school children due to cost & access to care:
Providing a product supply box of malaria diagnostics, treatment and other first aid supplies to schools
Training of teachers to administer diagnosis and treatment
Addressing cervical HPV screening availability limitations in low-income areas through
Leveraging CHWs to provide self-screening kits to women and take kits for diagnostic procedures at health centre
Self-testing HPV done by women
↑ Access to of care
↓ School absenteeism
Social-network models Ruge et al. (2012), [78] LOMA Denmark University research team Community—Schools   To address obesity among adolescents a multi-strategy approach:
Linking schools to local organic food suppliers for local production and procurement
Food education for children through linking them to local farmers and combined teacher–pupil cooking classes
Shared engagement in meals by teachers and pupils (eating together)
↑ Knowledge of children on food production and nutrition
↑ Scapital between school and local community
↑ Sense of wellbeing through social relationships
Grindell et al. (2017), [79] iStep Prototype United Kingdom University research team Community School-aged children & teachers To address obesity and limited physical activity in school children through:
Pairing up intergenerational teams of school children with teachers or older adults through shared walking challenges
A digital pedometer linking to an online platform to measure progress
↑ Physical activity
↑ Social connections
Kim (2019), [84] Time Banks South Korea American innovator (Edgar S Cahn)—replicated in Korea Community 950 senior citizens Addressing the ageing society, high incidence of mental health and suicide in elderly and limited co-ordination between health and social services through:
Model that connects people with a need for a service to those who want to serve (creating mutual support network and providing the elderly an opportunity to receive and give services (reciprocity))
Time credits are exchanged for services such as shopping, dog walking, childcare etc
↑ Community solidarity & agency
↑ Individual physical & mental wellbeing
↑ Access to necessary social services
↓ In health-associated costs
Entrepreneurial models Cheema et al. (2019), [82] Business-in-a-box Pakistan Rural Support Programmes Network (RSPN) in partnership with Population Services International (PSI) Community 450 women Addressing low contraception prevalence rate and high unmet need for reproductive health provision through a micro-entrepreneurship approach:
Training local women as community resource persons
Providing a product kit—a bag with contraceptive, household and hygiene products
Establishing a micro-franchise chain to ensure regular product provision
↑ Increase  to contraceptives
↑ Female financial independence & empowerment
Cicellin et al. (2019),
Low cost clinic models Italy Centro Medico Santagostino
Nuova Citta
Medici in Famiglia
Facility   Overcoming service gaps in the national healthcare system for which quality is low or waiting lists are long through different business models that include a social cooperative, a network of low cost clinics
These social business models, made possible through:
Recruit and engage medical staff at reduced renumeration but with long term financial incentives
Different pricing models and a select number of high-value services
Operating at economies of scale
Cross-subsidization between wealthy and low-income groups or between services generating different profit margins
↑ Affordability of care
↑ Access to of care