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Table 3 Chinese medicine with active ingredients against HCoV

From: Human coronaviruses and therapeutic drug discovery

Type Chinese medicine Active ingredients Mechanism Reference number
SARS-CoV Glycyrrhiza radix Glycyrrhizin and derivatives from it Inhibit the invasion and replication [128, 129]
Lycoris radiata Lycorine N/A [132]
N/A ZZ-1 N/A [131]
Houttuynia cordata Polysaccharides and ethyl acetate extracts, such as afzerin and quercetin Act on the body's immune system with anti-complement activity, and inhibits 3CLpro and RdRp activity [133, 134, 136]
Rheum rhabarbarum Emodin Suppress the interaction between S protein and ACE2 and inhibits 3clpro activity [135]
Polygonum multiflorum N/A Suppress the interaction between S protein and ACE2 [136]
Tripterygium regelii Quinone-methide triterpenes Inhibit the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro [137]
Ecklonia cava Dieckol Inhibit the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro [138]
Alnus japonica Diarylheptanoids Inhibit the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro [139]
Seeds of Psoralea corylifolia Phenolic phytochemical Inhibit the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro [140]
Angelica keiskei Chalcone 6 Inhibit the enzymatic activity of both 3CLpro and PLpro [141]
Salvia miltiorrhiza Tanshinones Inhibit the enzymatic activity of both 3CLpro and PLpro [142]
MERS-CoV Fruits and twigs of Aglaia foveolate Silvestrol Inhibit viral mRNA cap-dependent translation [153]
N/A Flavonoids such as herbacetin, isobavachalcone, quercetin-3-beta-O-d-glucoside and helichrysetin Inhibit the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro [154]
SARS-CoV-2 Folium mori, Atractylodes lancea, Fritillaria, Zingiber officinale, Lonicerae japonicae flos, Forsythia suspensa, and Amomum tsao-ko N/A Block the binding between ACE2 and viral S protein [143]
Astragalus, Panax ginseng, Dioscorea spp., and arecae semen N/A Regulate RAAS [144]
N/A Quercetin and its derivatives Block the binding between ACE2 and viral S protein, IL-6R and IL-6 [147]
Licorice, Ephedra, Bupleurum root N/A Block the binding between IL-6R and IL-6 [145, 146]
Bupleurum Saikoside A and saikoside D Bind to 3CLpro and block the binding between ACE2 and viral S protein [148]
Scutellaria baicalensis Baicalein Bind to 3CLpro and block the binding between ACE2 and viral S protein [149]
N/A Liquiritin apioside, iridin, liquiritin, forsythiaside, procyanidin B-5, 3′ -o-gallate and saikosaponin C Inhibit RdRp [150]
Aster, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Salvia miltiorrhiza Aster pentapeptide A, ligustrazine, salvianolic acid B Inhibit the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro [151]
Ginger, Ginkgo, Chuanxiong Gingerol, ginnol, ferulic acid Inhibit the enzymatic activity of PLpro [151]
N/A Hypericin and baicalein Bind to nsp14 [152]
HCoV-229E Leaves of Euphorbia neriifolia 3β-Friedelanol N/A [155]
Fruits and twigs of Aglaia foveolate Silvestrol Inhibit viral mRNA cap-dependent translation [153]
HCoV-NL63 Sambucus FormosanaNakai Ethanol extract-related caffeic acid Interfere with the binding of HCoV-NL63 to the receptor of ACE2 and co-receptors such as heparin sulfate proteoglycan [156]
  1. SARS-CoV: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; N/A: not applicable; 3CLpro: 3C-like protease; PLpro: Papain-like protease; RdRp: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; ACE2: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2; RAAS: Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; IL: interleukin; Nsp: non-structural protein; mRNA: messenger RNA
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