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Table 2 Outcomes of univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the association between demographic, disease and location characteristics of leprosy cases for different endemicity levels

From: Geospatial epidemiology of leprosy in northwest Bangladesh: a 20-year retrospective observational study

  Univariate models Multivariate models
Covariate aORa (95% CI) P-value aORb (95% CI) P-value
Sex     
  Male 1   1  
  Female 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.882 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 0.245
Age at diagnosis (years)     
  Below 15 1.25 (1.15–1.35)  < 0.001*** 1.26 (1.12–1.43)  < 0.001***
  15 and older 1   1  
Group     
  Paucibacillary (PB) 1   1  
  Multibacillary (MB) 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 0.006** 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.071
Skin smear     
  Negative 1   1  
  Positive 0.91 (0.82–1.02) 0.100 0.83 (0.73–0.96) 0.011*
Disability     
  Grade 0 1   1  
  Grade 1 1.06 (0.96–1.17) 0.262 1.04 (0.89–1.21) 0.497
  Grade 2 1.04 (0.94–1.16) 0.432 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 0.353
Proximity to nearest clinic (km) 1.24 (1.13–1.34) < 0.001*** 1.26 (1.16–1.37) < 0.001***
Proximity nearest city (km) 0.97 (0.97–0.98) < 0.001*** 0.98 (0.98–0.99) < 0.001***
Population size (per 100 m2) 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.001*** 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.004**
Mode of detection     
  Active 1.13 (1.06–1.23)  < 0.001*** 0.98 (0.87–1.10) 0.700
  Passive 1   1  
  1. We compared cases located outside of hotspots with cases within weak (RR lower than two), medium (RR of two to three) or strong (RR of three or higher) hotspots
  2. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. Significance codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘’ 1
  4. aModels were adjusted for year of detection of the case (fixed effect) and union of residence (random effect)
  5. bModels were adjusted for mode of detection, year of detection of the case (fixed effects) and union of residence (random effect)
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