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Table 2 Mental health and personal preventive behaviors among pregnant women by region (N = 15 428)

From: Mental health and preventive behaviour of pregnant women in China during the early phase of the COVID-19 period

  Total Northern China Eastern China Southern China Central China Northwest China Difference between groups
Mental health        
Depression (measured by PHQ-9)    χ2(16) = 76.91***
 Minimal (0 to 4) 8705 (56.4%) 1481 (58.7%) 4350 (57.0%) 1662 (57.8%) 808 (52.3%) 404 (47.4%)  
 Mild (5 to 9) 4402 (28.5%) 721 (28.6%) 2,160 (28.3%) 769 (26.8%) 494 (32.0%) 258 (30.3%)  
 Moderate (10 to 14) 1549 (10.0%) 216 (8.6%) 764 (10.0%) 291 (10.1%) 160 (10.4%) 118 (13.8%)  
 Moderately severe (15 to 29) 566 (3.7%) 79 (3.1%) 255 (3.3%) 112 (3.9%) 65 (4.2%) 54 (6.3%)  
 Severe (20 to 27) 206 (1.3%) 28 (1.1%) 103 (1.3%) 39 (1.4%) 18 (1.2%) 18 (2.1%)  
Anxiety (measured by GAD-7)    χ2(12) = 62.47***
 Minimal (0 to 4) 11 079 (71.8%) 1871 (74.1%) 5582 (73.1%) 2026 (70.5%) 1051 (68.0%) 549 (64.4%)  
 Mild (5 to 9) 3258 (21.1%) 489 (19.4%) 1573 (20.6%) 610 (21.2%) 372 (24.1%) 213 (25.0%)  
 Moderate (10 to 14) 734 (4.8%) 106 (4.2%) 325 (4.3%) 159 (5.5%) 85 (5.5%) 59 (6.9%)  
 Severe (15 to 21) 357 (2.3%) 59 (2.3%) 152 (2.0%) 78 (2.7%) 37 (2.4%) 31 (3.6%)  
Personal preventive behaviors      
Frequency of wearing face mask when going out    χ2(12) = 76.33***
 Never 5507 (35.7%) 837 (33.1%) 2607 (34.2%) 1134 (39.5%) 585 (37.9%) 344 (40.4%)  
 Seldom 5416 (35.1%) 893 (35.4%) 2691 (35.3%) 970 (33.8%) 585 (37.9%) 277 (32.5%)  
 Sometimes 1444 (9.4%) 279 (11.9%) 714 (9.4%) 233 (8.1%) 142 (9.2%) 76 (8.9%)  
 Always 3061 (19.8%) 516 (20.4%) 1620 (21.2%) 536 (18.7%) 233 (15.1%) 155 (18.2%)  
Frequency of washing hands with soap per day    χ2(16) = 414.66***
 0 to 2 times 1934 (12.5%) 138 (5.5%) 1002 (13.1%) 435 (15.1%) 302 (19.5%) 57 (6.7%)  
 3 to 5 times 5917 (38.4%) 820 (32.5%) 2970 (38.9%) 1159 (40.3%) 648 (41.9%) 319 (37.4%)  
 6 to 10 times 4634 (30.0%) 918 (36.4%) 2265 (29.7%) 750 (26.1%) 385 (24.9%) 316 (37.1%)  
 11 to 15 times 1388 (9.0%) 314 (12.4%) 689 (9.0%) 204 (7.1%) 102 (6.6%) 79 (9.3%)  
 More than 15 times 1555 (10.1%) 335 (13.3%) 706 (9.3%) 325 (11.3%) 108 (7.0%) 81 (9.5%)  
  1. PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, GAD-7 General Anxiety Disorder-7
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