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Table 3 Logistic regression for mental health and personal preventive behaviours among pregnant women (N = 15 428)

From: Mental health and preventive behaviour of pregnant women in China during the early phase of the COVID-19 period

  Probable depression (PHQ-9 > 5) Probable anxiety (GAD-7 > 5) Always wearing face mask Washing hands with soap for > 11 times per day
  OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age, years         
 19 or below 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 -
 20–25 0.74 (0.55–1.00)   0.57 (0.42–0.78)***   0.89 (0.61–1.30)   1.30 (0.98–1.91)  
 26–30 0.67 (0.50–0.91)*   0.54 (0.40–0.73)***   0.99 (0.68–1.44)   1.57 (1.08–2.28)*  
 31–35 0.62 (0.46–0.84)**   0.50 (0.37–0.68)***   0.98 (0.68–1.42)   1.90 (1.31–2.77)**  
 36–40 0.46 (0.33–0.63)***   0.43 (0.31–0.59)***   1.00 (0.68–1.48)   2.31 (1.57–3.40)***  
 41 or above 0.43 (0.29–0.64)***   0.42 (0.28–0.64)***   1.41 (0.89–2.26)   1.99 (1.26–3.16)**  
Education level         
 Primary or below 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 -
 Junior secondary 1.08 (0.83–1.39)   1.00 (0.76–1.32)   1.00 (0.72–1.39)   1.09 (0.82–1.44)  
 Senior secondary 1.21 (0.94–1.57)   .96 (0.73–1.27)   .87 (0.62–1.21)   1.11 (0.84–1.47)  
 Matriculation 1.31 (1.02–1.68)*   .96 (0.73–1.25)   1.15 (0.83–1.59)   1.13 (0.86–1.50)  
 Undergraduate 1.38 (1.07–1.77)*   1.01 (0.77–1.33)   1.57 (1.14–2.17)**   1.11 (0.84–1.45)  
 Postgraduate or above 1.45 (1.10–1.92)**   1.13 (0.84–1.53)   1.50 (1.06–2.13)*   1.15 (0.85–1.55)  
Pregnancy-related characteristics
Parity         
 Nulliparous 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 -
 Primiparous 0.76 (0.71–0.81)***   0.84 (0.78–0.90)***   0.84 (0.77–0.91)***   1.23 (1.14–1.32)***  
 Multiparous 0.63 (0.54–0.74)***   0.86 (0.73–1.02)   0.69 (0.56–0.84)***   1.19 (1.01–1.41)*  
Gestational age   -   -   - - -
 1st trimester (12 weeks or below) 1   1   1   1  
 2nd trimester (13 to 26 weeks) 0.72 (0.64–0.81)***   0.84 (0.74–0.95)**   0.86 (0.76–0.99)*   1.13 (0.99–1.29)  
 3rd trimester (27 weeks or above) 0.71 (0.64–0.80)***   0.94 (0.83–1.06)   0.70 (0.61–0.80)***   1.33 (1.17–1.51)***  
Pregnancy-related complications
 No 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 -
 Yes 0.99 (0.99–1.11)   1.28 (1.13–1.44)***   0.94 (0.82–1.08)   1.22 (1.09–1.38)**  
Contextual factor
Place of residence being locked down
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.04 (0.98–1.11) 1.10 (1.03–1.18)** 1.09 (1.02–1.18)* 1.11 (1.03–1.20)** 0.81 (0.75–0.88)*** 0.91 (0.84–1.00) 0.99 (0.90–1.04) 0.99 (0.92–1.07)
Being quarantined
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.40 (1.19–1.65)*** 1.42 (1.20–1.68)*** 1.56 (1.31–1.85)*** 1.57 (1.32–1.86)*** 1.03 (0.83–1.26) 1.05 (0.85–1.29) 0.97 (0.81–1.17) 0.99 (0.82–1.19)
Someone personally knew being infected
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.89 (1.19–2.98)** 1.80 (1.14–2.85)** 1.96 (1.25–3.09)** 1.92 (1.22–3.03)** 0.76 (0.41–1.40) 0.69 (0.37–1.28) 0.76 (0.44–1.29) 0.75 (0.44–1.28)
Cognitive factors
COVID-19 will be under control in the coming month
 Certainly not / very small / small chance 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 High / very high chance / certainly yes 0.63 (0.56–0.70)*** 0.63 (0.56–0.71)*** 0.59 (0.52–0.67)*** 0.59 (0.53–0.67)*** 0.84 (0.73–0.97)* 0.85 (0.74–0.98)* 1.03 (0.91–1.18) 1.04 (0.91–1.18)
COVID-19 will pose long term physical harm to human
 Don’t know /no 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.27 (1.19–1.35)*** 1.25 (1.17–1.33)*** 1.30 (1.21–1.39)*** 1.28 (1.20–1.38)*** 1.08 (1.00–1.17)* 1.06 (0.97–1.14) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.98 (0.92–1.06)
Social factor         
Social support score (mean, range 1 to 10) 0.86 (0.85–0.87)*** 0.86 (0.85–0.88)*** 0.86 (0.85–0.88)*** 0.87 (0.85–0.88)*** 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.00 (0.99–1.03) 1.06 (1.04–1.08)*** 1.06 (1.04–1.08)***
  1. OR Odds ratio derived from univariate logistic regression, aOR Odds ratio derived from univariate logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic and pregnancy-related characteristics that were significant in the univariate logistic regression, CI Confidential interval
  2. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001