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Table 2 Summary of existing antiviral treatments

From: Effectiveness of potential antiviral treatments in COVID-19 transmission control: a modelling study

No. Author Year Title Antiviral treatment Clinical efficacy Statistical significance Effectiveness
1 Wang M-L, Cao R-Y, Zhang L-K, et al. 2020 Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro Remdesivir Remdesivir can reduce the infectivity of COVID-19 patients Yes 1) Reducing transmission (β)
2 Wang M-L, Cao R-Y, Zhang L-K, et al. 2020 Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro Chloroquine Chloroquine has certain antiviral activity and can synergize with Remdesivir in the body to enhance its antiviral effect Yes 1) Reducing transmission (β)
3 Gautret P, Lagier J-C, Honore S, et al. 2020 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial Hydroxychloroquine The average survival time of viral vectors in the treatment group was shorter than that in the control group Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
4 Million M, Lagier J-C, Gautret P, et al. 2020 Early treatment of COVID-19 patients with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin: a retrospective analysis of 1061 cases in Marseille Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin The combined medication can shorten the course of the patient’s disease, and 91.7% of the patients successfully cleared the virus within 10 days Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
5 Chen Z-W, Hu J-J, Zhang Z-W, et al. 2020 Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial Hydroxychloroquine The recovery time of body temperature and cough relief in treatment group were significantly shortened Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
6 Bian H-J, Zheng Z-H, Wei D, et al. 2020 Meplazumab treats COVID-19 pneumonia: an open-labelled, concurrent controlled add-on clinical trial Meplazumab The virus clearance time of the treatment group and control group was 3 days (1.5–4.5) and 13 days (6.5–19.5), respectively Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
7 Cai Q-X, Yang M-H, Liu D-J, et al. 2020 Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for COVID-19: An Open-Label Control Study Favipiravir The median duration of the disease in the treatment group was 4 days (2.5–9) while the control group was 11 days (8–13) Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
8 Beigel J-H, Tomashek K-M, Dodd L-E 2020 Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19—preliminary report Remdesivir The recovery time of hospitalized patients who need oxygen therapy has been shortened from 15 to 11 days after using Remdesivir Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
9 Gao J-J, Tian Z-X, Yang X 2020 Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies Chloroquine phosphate The duration of the disease in the treatment group was shortened Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
10 Deftereos S-G, Giannopoulos G, Vrachatis D-A, et al. 2020 Effect of Colchicine vs Standard Care on Cardiac and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Colchicine The clinical deterioration time of the treatment group was significantly improved Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
11 Cai Q-X, Yang M-H, Liu D-J, et al. 2020 Experimental treatment with favipiravir for COVID-19: An open-label control study Favipiravir The case fatality rate of the treatment group has decreased Yes 3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
12 Horby P, Lim W-S, Mafham M, et al. 2020 Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19—Preliminary Report Dexamethasone The use of dexamethasone has reduced the death number of COVID-19 patients who use breathing machine by one third Yes 3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
13 Xu X-L, Han M-F, Li T-T, et al. 2020 Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab Tobiximab,
Interferon α-2b
Tobiximab can improve the clinical symptoms of severe or critical COVID-19 patients, and Interferon α-2b can improve the survival rate of patients Yes 3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
14 Pereda R, Daniel González D, Rivero H, et al. 2020 Therapeutic effectiveness of interferon-alpha 2b against COVID-19: the Cuban experience Interferon α-2b The cure rate in the treatment group (95.4%) is higher than the cure rate in the control group (26.1%) Yes 3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
15 Beigel J-H, Tomashek K-M, Dodd L-E 2020 Remdesivir for the Treatment of COVID-19 — Preliminary Report Remdesivir The recovery time of the treatment group was 11 days while the control group was 15 days; and the case fatality rate of the treatment group was lower Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
3) reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
16 Kalil A-C, Patterson T-F, Mehta A-K, et al. 2021 Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19 Baricitinib, Remdesivir Combination medication could shorten the recovery time and reduce the 28-day mortality rate Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
17 Chen C, Zhang Y, Huang J-Y, et al. 2020 Favipiravir versus Arbidol for COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial Uminovir,
Favipiravir
The 7-day clinical recovery rate was 55.9% in the group of umminovir, and 71% in the group of favipiravir Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
18 Tong S, Su Y, Yu Y, et al. 2020 Ribavirin therapy for severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study Ribavirin The recovery time of patients in the treatment group was 12.8 ± 4.1 days and that of control group was 14.1 ± 3.5 days. The case fatality rate in the treatment group was 17.1%, and the case fatality rate in the control group was 24.6% Yes 2) Decreasing the infectiousness of I and A (1/γ and 1/γ’);
3) Reducing the fatality rate of severely ill patients (fc)
19 Zhang Y-Tai, Louisa T, Goh R-M, et al. 2020 Mixed Chinese herbs and Western medicine for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a mixed method review Traditional Chinese medicine combined therapy Traditional Chinese medicine combined treatment can improve symptoms, but there is no significant difference in admission time No  
20 Wang Y-M, Zhang D-Y, Du G-H, et al. 2020 Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised,double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial Remdesivir The recovery period and case fatality rate of the treatment group were different from those of the control group, but they were not statistically significant No  
21 Chen J, Liu D, Liu L 2020 A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) Hydroxychloroquine There was no statistical difference between the treatment group and the control group in clearing the virus No  
22 Tang W, Cao Z, Han M 2020 Hydroxychloroquine in patients mainly with mild to moderate COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial Hydroxychloroquine There was no statistical difference between the treatment group and the control group in clearing the virus No  
23 Boulware D-R, Pullen M-F, Bangdiwala A-S, et al. 2020 A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 Hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine can not reduce virus activity No  
24 Li Y-P, Xie Z-W, Lin W-Y, et al. 2020 An exploratory randomized, controlled study on the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol treating adult patients hospitalized with mild/moderate COVID-19 Lopanovi The case fatality rate and recovery time of the treatment group was lower than that of the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant No  
25 Hung I-FN, Lung K-C, Tso E-YK, et al. 2020 Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital
with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial
Ribavirin, Interferon β-1b, Lopinavir The recovery time after the combination medication was shortened from 12 to 7 days, but the difference was not statistically significant No  
26 Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. 2020 A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19 Lopinavir–Ritonavir The case fatality rate of the treatment group was lower than that of the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant No  
27 Li Y-P, Xie Z-W, Lin W-Y, et al. 2020 Efficacy and Safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Arbidol in Adult Patients with Mild/Moderate COVID-19: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Arbidol Patients in the treatment group showed no significant improvement after treatment No  
28 Tobaiqy M, Alhumaid S, Mutair A-A 2020 Efficacy and Safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Lopinavir–Ritonavir Patients in the treatment group showed no significant improvement after treatment No