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Table 1 Technology aspects of 184 valid patented technologies for schistosomiasis control and prevention

From: Patented technologies for schistosomiasis control and prevention filed by Chinese applicants

Technology aspects   Patented technology aspects
Fundamental research (n = 37, 20.1%) Oncomelania hupensis (n = 1) Detection: Specific gene: mitochondrial genome DNA to study genetic variation and differentiation of O. hupensis (n = 1)
Schistosoma japonicum (n = 36)a Detection methods (n = 17)
Proteins: SJ16, SjSap, SjScP27, SjScP80, SjScP84, SjScP88, SjHSP90,Vamp2, Microsatellite DNA,nucleic acid,Schistosoma egg crude antigen, amino acid, nanoantibodies, transposon DNA target sequences, glutathione-S-transferase(GST), fluorescent markers
Chemotherapy (n = 17)
SJ16, SjP40, SjSAPLP4, SjSAPLP5, SjScP27, SjScP80, SjScP84, SjScP88, SjHSP60, IRF4, Frizzled 9, wingless/integrated (WNT) signaling pathways, Sj thioredoxin glutathione reductase (GR), Ad-TD-gene, O-GlcNAcylation, miRNAs, worm production
Vaccine (n = 11)
SJ16, Sj29, Sj23, SjE16, Sjp50, SjCTRL, SjSAPLP4, SjSAPLP5, SjScP27, SjScP80, SjScP84, SjScP88, SJ26 glutathione-S-transferase(GST), worm production
Detection methods (n = 13, 7.1%)b Molecular detection methods (n = 8)
O. hupensis (n = 2)/S. japonicum (n = 6)
LAMP technique (n = 3)
PCR technique (n = 4)
RPA technique (n = 1)
Serological detection methods for S. japonicum (n = 5) Electrochemical immunosensor (n = 1)
ELISA technique (n = 2)
GICA (n = 2)
Pathogenic detection methods for S. japonicum (n = 1) Improved Kato-Katz (n = 1)
Chemotherapy (n = 61, 33.1%) Molluscicides for O. hupensis (n = 26) Streptomyces (n = 3)
Niclosamide (n = 6)
Other chemical compounds or compounded with plant or nanocomposite (n = 17)
Schistosomicides for S. japonicum (n = 35) Praziquantel (n = 4)
Artemisinin/Artesunate (n = 3)
   Herbal effective ingredient extracts (n = 12)
Bo Luohui/Pulsatilla/Xusuizi/betel nut/Chinese medicine combination
WNT and other chemical compounds (n = 15)
External use with gossypol (n = 1)
Armamentarium/devices (n = 73, 39.7%) For O. hupensis (n = 34) Prevention of spread of snails/water conservation and electricity (n = 10)
Molluscicidal device/crushing of O. hupensis (n = 7)
O. hupensis search/collection (n = 10)
O. hupensis tracking and raising/bioimaging/monitoring and testing (n = 7)
For S. japonicum (n = 38) Monitoring/Observation for cercariae/miracidium (n = 5)
Incubation collection and separation research for cercariae/miracidium (n = 4)
Ultrasonic larviciding (n = 1)
Device for separating, hatching, and killing S. japonicum eggs (n = 3)
Neck sleeve deinsectization device for removing schistosomes on necks of dogs (n = 1)
Oral drug delivery device for cattle, sheep, and dogs (n = 3)
Epidermal needle for the vaccine (n = 1)
Detoxification and collection of excrement (n = 4)
Kit devices for on-site test and laboratory analysis for schistosomiasis control and prevention (n = 16)
For S. haematobium (n = 1) Device of a detection filter membrane for filtering S. haematobium eggs (n = 1)
  1. aThe overlap of classification for partial patents of detection methods, chemotherapy and vaccine. bOne of the detection patents is based on protein Sjp7 for both molecular detection and serological detection, with 14 detection methods in 13 patents
  2. GST Glutathione-S-transferase, GR Glutathione reductase, LAMP Loop-mediated isothermal amplification, PCR Polymerase chain reaction, RPA Recombinase polymerase amplification, ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, GICA Eolloidal gold immunochromatographic assay