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Table 2 Meta-analysis and subgroup analysis of prevalence of HBV, HCV and among prisoners living with HIV

From: The global and regional prevalence of hepatitis C and B co-infections among prisoners living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable Number of studies Pooled prevalence* 95% CI I2 (%) Heterogeneity (95% CI) P value
Subgroup analysis for hepatitis B co-infection among prisoners living with HIV  
WHO regions Region of the Americas 3 5 3–7 0 1.75 (-3.37 to 6.87) 0.48
European of region 11 18 10–26 97.22
Western Pacific 2 27 23–31 0
South-East of Asia 1 3 1–11 0
Eastern Mediterranean region 5 3 0–5 24.16
African region 1 15 8–27 0
Study design Cross-sectional 20 11 6–15 96.30 -6.28 (-33.45 to 20.88) 0.63
Cohort 3 5 4–7 0
Quality of study High 10 8 3–13 94.02 -6.36 (-17.83 to 5.09) 0.26
Moderate 8 17 5–28 96.24
Low 5 18 9–28 97.74
Sample size  < 50 6 21 0–43 96.64 -10.05 (-30.98 to 10.87) 0.32
 > 50 17 10 7–13 95.34
Year  < 2005 5 38 16–59 99.04 -8.61 (-15.96 to -1.25) 0.02
2006–2010 8 6 4–8 34.60
2011–2015 4 3 0–6 30.21
 > 2015 6 5 3–8 54.80
Subgroup analysis for Hepatitis C co-infection among prisoners living with HIV  
WHO regions Region of the Americas 17 45 38–53 98.25 -6.81 (-11.28 to -2.34) 0.004
European of region 21 64 50–79 99.22
Western Pacific region 3 75 40–100 0
South-East of Asia region 2 83 74–91 0
Eastern Mediterranean region 7 83 73–93 92.69
Study design Cross-sectional 46 62 52–72 99.40 -6.38 (-37.32 to 24.55) 0.68
Cohort 4 56 21–91 99.44
Quality of study High 16 66 55–77 97.51 -2.78 (-14.58 to 9.01) 0.63
Moderate 24 54 39–69 99.60
Low 10 75 53–96 99.48
Sample size  < 50 17 62 46–77 96.43 0.07 (-17.55 to 17.71) 0.99
 > 50 33 662 51–73 99.62
Year  < 2005 11 61 36–86 99.45 -6.75 (-14.10 to 0.59) 0.20
2006–2010 13 71 53–90 99.61
2011–2015 13 71 56–86 97.15
 > 2015 13 42 25–59 99.46
  1. *Footnote: Prevalence was provided per 100 people