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Table 2 Participant characteristics by occurrence of catastrophic costs at 20% threshold, Kenya 2016 (n = 1071)

From: Determinants of household catastrophic costs for drug sensitive tuberculosis patients in Kenya

  Characteristics Total
n = 1071
With catastrophic costs*
n = 294
without catastrophic costs*
n = 777
P-value***
  n %** n %**  
Patient factors Gender Female 406 117 39.8 289 37.2  
Male 665 177 60.2 488 62.8 0.457
Age Mean (SD)   31 18.1 31 15.1 0.698
Household characteristics Formal education level Secondary & above 547 155 52.7 392 50.5  
Primary school & below 397 92 31.3 305 39.3  
None 127 47 16.0 80 10.3 0.089
Health insurance None 905 247 84.0 658 84.7  
Private 18 6 2.1 12 1.5  
National Health Insurance 148 41 13.9 107 13.8 0.836
Residence Rural 265 71 24.1 194 25.0  
Urban 806 223 75.9 583 75.0 0.252
Household size Median (IQR)   4 (2–6) 4 (2–6) 0.365
Annual household income (USD) Median (IQR)   1374 (714–2509) 3081 (1918–5279)  < 0.001
Disease and care-seeking characteristics TB type Extra-pulmonary 188 63 21.4 125 16.1  
Pulmonary 883 231 78.6 651 83.9 0.018
BMI (n = 852) Mean (SD)   14 8.3 16 7.9 0.023
HIV status Negative 278 81 27.6 197 25.4  
Positive 769 203 69.4 566 72.8  
Unknown 24 10 3.4 14 1.8 0.272
Diabetes status Yes 20 5 1.7 15 1.9  
No 1028 283 96.3 745 95.9  
Unknown 23 6 2.0 17 2.2 0.568
Treatment category New case 953 259 88.1 684 88.0  
Relapse/retreatment 128 35 11.9 93 12.0 0.877
Facility of treatment Private 102 35 11.9 67 8.6  
Public 969 259 88.1 710 91.4 0.102
Treatment delay > 4 weeks Yes 180 70 23.8 110 14.2  
No 891 224 76.2 667 85.8 0.002
Hospitalization Yes 6 5 1.7 1 0.1  
No 1065 289 98.3 776 99.9 0.048
X-ray done Yes 589 180 61.2 409 52.6  
No 482 114 38.8 368 47.4 0.114
Received nutritional support Yes 713 192 65.3 521 67.1  
No 354 100 34.0 254 32.7  
Unknown 4 2 0.7 2 0.7 0.193
  1. *Where indicated by row title, it represents mean or median, **Where indicated by row title, this represents standard deviation (SD), or interquartile range (IQR), ***Pearson’s Chi Square test for comparison of proportions unless specified
  2. Mann Whitney test
  3. t-test for comparison of means