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Table 3 Performance of the POC-CCA assay using different diagnostic tests as reference

From: Performance of the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica in a human cohort from Northern Samar, the Philippines

POC-CCA Reference test Sensitivity, % (95% CI) Specificity, % (95% CI) PPV, % (95% CI) NPV, % (95% CI) Accuracy, % (95% CI) Kappa index (95% CI)
+ 
  KK
+  32 19 29.6 (21.2–39.2) 93.8 (90.4–96.2) 62.8 (48.1–75.9) 79.0 (74.4–83.0) 77.0 (72.6–81.0) 0.282 (0.179–0.385)
76 285
  F_ddPCR
+  44 7 14.3 (10.6–18.8) 93.3 (86.8–97.3) 86.3 (73.7–94.3) 27.2 (22.6–32.1) 34.5 (29.9–39.3) 0.043 (0.007–0.078)
263 98
  SR_ddPCR
+  41 10 14.8 (10.8–19.5) 92.6 (86.8–96.4) 80.4 (66.9–90.2) 34.6 (29.7–39.8) 40.1 (35.5–45.2) 0.052 (0.008–0.095)
236 125
  U_ddPCR
+  31 20 15.8 (11.0–21.7) 90.7 (86.1–94.3) 60.8 (46.1–74.2) 54.3 (49.0–59.5) 55.1 (50.2–60.0) 0.068 (0.001–0.134)
165 196
  SL_ddPCR
+  29 22 27.6 (19.3–37.2) 92.8 (89.4–95.5) 56.9 (42.3–71.0) 79.0 (74.4–83.0) 76.2 (71.8–80.3) 0.246 (0.142–0.350)
76 285
  Sj23-LHD-ELISA#
+  23 28 22.3 (14.7–31.6) 91.0 (89.4–95.5) 45.1 (31.1–59.7) 77.8 (73.2–82.0) 73.8 (69.3–78.0) 0.160 (0.058–0.261)
80 281
  SjSAP4-ELISA#
+  41 10 15.6 (11.4–20.6) 93.3 (88.0–96.7) 80.4 (66.9–90.2) 38.5 (33.5–43.7) 43.7 (38.8–48.6) 0.068 (0.021–0.114)
222 139
  1. CI Confidence interval, ddPCR Droplet digital PCR, The ddPCRs performed on faeces, serum, urine and saliva were designated as F_ddPCR, SR_ddPCR, U_ddPCR and SL_ddPCR, respectively. ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, KK Kato-Katz, POC-CCA Point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen, NPV Negative predictive value, PPV Positive predictive value.
  2. R cut-off value: 0.1344
  3. #Cut-off values for ELISA assays: Sj23-LHD-ELISA, 0.2185; SjSAP4-ELISA, 0.1832 [25]