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Table 1 Malaria stages and vector control strategies in China

From: Vector control in China, from malaria endemic to elimination and challenges ahead

Stages of malaria Approximate number of cases reported Characteristics Goal Role and features of vector control strategies
Focal investigation and control (1949–1959) 32 (millions) Endemic with scarce data To determine prevalence, parasites and vectors and reduce the mortality and morbidity in focal areas Baseline surveys of vectors
Control trials
Severe epidemic (1960–1979) 183 (millions) Pandemic of vivax malaria in central China To control the pandemics Mass IRS with DDT as a core in areas with endophilic, endophagic and anthropophilic vectors
Mass IVC supplemented in exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic vectors
Incidence rate declining (1980–1999) 13 (millions) Continuous decline of prevalence To continue the reduction of transmission IRS with DDT and ITNs with Pyrethroid insecticides as a core in areas with endophilic, endophagic and anthropophilic vectors
IVC supplemented in exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic vectors
Reducing breeding sites
Control/pre-elimination (2000–2009) 350 (thousands) Resurgence of vivax malaria in central China To roll back resurgence and transform control programme to elimination IRS and ITNs/LLINs with Pyrethroid insecticides as a core in areas with endophilic, endophagic and anthropophilic vectors
IVC supplemented in exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic vectors
Vector surveillance
Larvae control
Eliminating (2010–2020) 38 (thousands) Sporadic transmission and imported infections To achieve elimination IRS in Foci and ITNs/LLINs among high risk population with high-efficacy Pyrethroid insecticides as a core in areas with endophilic, endophagic and anthropophilic vectors
IVC supplemented in exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic vectors
Vector distribution prediction
Post-elimination (2020-present) < 1000 (imported cases only) Risk of re-transmission To prevent re-transmission caused by imported malaria IRS in Foci and ITNs/LLINs among high risk population with high-efficacy Pyrethroid insecticides as a core in areas with endophilic, endophagic and anthropophilic vectors
IVC supplemented in exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic vectors
Corresponding vector control strategy based on risk stratification