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Table 1 Main characteristics of included studies and subjects

From: Immunogenicity and safety of heterologous versus homologous prime-boost schedules with an adenoviral vectored and mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: a systematic review

First author Year Country Design Vaccination schedule Prime-boost interval (days) N Age (years) Male (n,%) Boost-outcomes interval Outcomes
Louise Benning [21] 2021 Germany Prospective cohort ChAd/ChAd 82 (82–83)a 17 55 (33–60)a 6 (35) 20 (19–21)a Anti-S1 IgG, SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies, IgG antibodies against different SARS-CoV-2 target antigens
     ChAd/BNT 83 (77–84)a 35 30 (24–45)a 12 (34) 20 (19–21)a
     BNT/BNT 20 (20–20)a 82 45 (33–56)a 19 (23) 20 (19–21)a
Joana Barros-Martins [12] 2021 Germany Retrospective cohort ChAd/ChAd 73 (45–85)a 32 41 (21–64)a 12 (38) 16 (13–22)a Anti-S IgG, Anti-S IgA, Neutralizing Antibodies, frequency and phenotype of B cells and T cells
     ChAd/BNT 74 (62–84)a 55 39 (22–61)a 15 (27) 17 (13–23)a
     BNT/BNT 22 (18–28)a 21 38 (23–59)a 9 (43) 30 (15–65)a
Xinxue Liu [14] 2021 UK RCT ChAd/ChAd 28 90c
25d
57.6 (50.1–69.1)ac
55.3 (50.7–64.1)ad
52 (58)c
12 (48)d
28 Anti spike IgG, Normalised NT50(Live virus neutralising antibody), NT50(Pseudotype virus neutralising antibody), SFC per million PBMCs, Adverse events
     ChAd/BNT 28 90c
24d
57.6 (50.1–69.1)ac
58.9 (51.8–68.3)ad
50 (56)c
15 (63)d
28
     BNT/BNT 28 93c
26d
57.7 (50.2–69.3)ac
54.7 (50.1–67.2)ad
44 (47)c
14 (54)d
28
     BNT/ChAd 28 90c
25d
56.1 (50.5–68.9)ac
55.8 (51.4–67.0)ad
49 (54)c
15 (60)d
28
Alexandre Vallée [28] 2021 France Retrospective, cross-sectional ChAd/BNT 84 (3)a 130 37 (13)a 26 (20) 38 (7)a Anti spike IgG
     BNT/BNT 27 (6)a 67 32 (11)a 8 (12) 42 (9)a
Tina Schmidt [26] 2021 Germany Cohort ChAd/ChAd 10.8 ± 1.4weekb 55 48.6 ± 11.9b 20 (36) 14 (2)a Spike-specific IgG, neutralizing antibody, spike-specific CD4 and CD9 T cells, B cells, Adverse events
     ChAd/BNT 11.2 ± 1.3weekb 97 40.8 ± 11.1b 26 (27) 14 (1)a
     BNT/BNT 4.3 ± 1.1weeksb 64 44.7 ± 14.3b 18 (28) 14 (1.25)a
David Hillus [13] 2021 Germany Prospective cohort ChAd/ChAd 83 (71–84)a 36c
36d
51 (33–59)ac
51 (33–59)ad
13 (36)c
13 (36)d
24 (20–28)a full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, RBD-IgG, neutralising antibody, IFN-γ
     ChAd/BNT 71 (70–73)a 104c
94d
37 (29–51)c
37 (29–48)ad
26 (25)c
23 (24)d
21 (20–21)a
     BNT/BNT 21 (21–21)a 159c
101d
34 (29–43)c
35 (30–47)ad
72 (45)c
28 (28)d
28 (27–31)a
Dorit Fabricius [15] 2021 Germany Cohort BNT/BNT German guidelines 15 47 (26–64)a 3 (20) 14 or 21a Neutralization capacities, anti-spike IgG titers, IFN-γ
     mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 German guidelines 13 51 (34–61)a 5 (38) 14 or 21a
     ChAd/BNT German guidelines 26 44 (22–64)a 24 (92) 14 or 21a
     ChAd/mRNA-1273 German guidelines 10 33 (21–47)a 3 (30) 14 or 21a
Matthias Tenbusch [27] 2021 Germany Cohort ChAd/BNT 63 (63–77)a
63 (63–63)a
232e
250e
47 (33–55)ae
52 (31–59)a
42 (18)e
90 (36)e
14 (13–15)ad
14 (14)ad
Surrogate neutralization activity
     BNT/BNT 21 (21–22)a
23 (21–25)a
410e 127e 38 (31–48)ae
41 (27–52)ae
162 (40)e 37 (29)e 14 (13–15)ad
15 (13–15)ad
     ChAd/ChAd 63 (63–63)a 66e 57 (45–62)ae 23 (35) e 15 (13–15)a
Swantje I. Hammerschmidt [23] 2021 Germany Cohort ChAd/ChAd 68 (45–91)a 31 NR 11 (35) 17 (13–23)a Reciprocal titers of Neutralizing Antibodies
     ChAd/BNT 68 (45–91)a 54 NR 14 (26) 17 (13–23)a
     BNT/BNT 21 (18–27)a 30 NR 9 (30) 30 (15–65)a
Rudiger Gross [22] 2022 Germany Retrospective cohort ChAd/BNT 56a 26 31 (25–46)a 10 (38) 14–19a Anti-spike-IgM and IgG, surrogate virus neutralization, 50% pseudovirus neutralization, IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-2
     BNT/BNT 21a 14 42 (25–65)a 10 (71) 13–15a
Bruno Pozzetto [25] 2021 France Cohort ChAd/BNT 85 (84–85)a 29 34 (27–40)a 9 (31) 30 (28–34)a RBD and spike S1-specific IgG, IgA, neutralizing activity
     BNT/BNT 29 (26–31)a 31 41 (33–52)a 8 (26) 28 (27–31)a
Samantha J Westrop [29] 2022 UK Contemporaneous cohort ChAd/BNT 73 (64–83)a 237 47 (37–59)a 55 (23) 30 (21–39)a IgG antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-antibody) and Nucleoprotein (N-antibody)
     BNT/BNT 76 (70–76)a 135 71 (69–72)a 64 (47) 30 (21–39)a
     ChAd/ChAd 70 (54–77)a 121 65 (54–69)a 59 (49) 30 (21–39)a
     BNT/ChAd 79 (65–99)a 123 51 (40–63)a 36 (29) 30 (21–39)a
Swantje I. Hammerschmidt [24] 2022 Germany Cohort ChAd/mRNA-1273 80 (62–87)a 42 38 (19–66)a 13 (31) 14 Neutralizing antibodies against the Delta variant
     mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 29 (27–42)a 24 34 (23–63)a 11 (44) 14
     ChAd/ChAd 78 (35–93)a 38 47 (24–69)a 15 (39) 14
  1. Data in columns of “N”, “Age”, and “Male” represented the number of whole cohorts, we add special annotation (i.e. c, d, e) if data represented number of immunology cohorts or one study included more than one cohort
  2. Ab antibody, BNT BNT162b2 vaccine, Pfizer–BioNTech, ChAd ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, AstraZeneca, NR not reported, RBD receptor-binding domain, NT50 50% neutralising antibody titre, SFC spot-forming units, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cell, IFN-γ interferon-γ
  3. aData were presented as the median, median (Q1, Q3), or median (interquartile range)
  4. bData were presented as the mean ± standard deviation
  5. cData represented the number of whole cohorts
  6. dData presented the number of immunology cohorts
  7. eData presented the number of each cohort included in the study