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Table 2 Costs per episode for influenza outpatients and associated risk factors in China, 2013 (US$)a

From: The economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations in China: a retrospective survey

Characteristic Direct cost Indirect costs Total costs Multiple linear regression
Medical costs Non-medical costs
(95 % Confidence interval)b
Total (n = 529) 70 (69) 26 (44) 59 (59) 155 (122)  
Gender p = 0.141 p = 0.904 p = 0.333 p = 0.814  
 Female (n = 248) 64 (52) 28 (49) 62 (65) 153 (116) Reference
 Male (n = 281) 75 (81) 25 (40) 57 (52) 157 (127) −6 (−24,12)
Age group (years) p = 0.062 p < 0.001 p = 0.006 p = 0.003  
  < 5 (n = 122) 85 (84) 36 (53) 75 (75) 196 (152) Reference
 5–14 (n = 232) 63 (68) 28 (43) 61 (61) 153 (121) −52 (−89,−22)f
 15–59 (n = 160) 68 (59) 17 (39) 45 (34) 130 (91) −81 (−119,−52)f
  ≥ 60 (n = 15) 61 (41) 10 (13) 58 (41) 129 (62) −104 (−151,−63)f
Risk statusc p=0.006 p=0.228 p=0.163 p=0.009  
 Low risk (n = 412) 64 (57) 26 (44) 57 (54) 146 (111) Reference
 High risk (n = 117) 90 (98) 28 (45) 68 (71) 186 (151) 40 (16,76)f
Area p = 0.197 p = 0.406 p < 0.001 p < 0.001  
 Urban area (n = 438) 69 (62) 25 (42) 67 (61) 161 (119) Reference
 Rural area (n = 91) 72 (96) 33 (56) 23 (23) 128 (132) −26 (−53,14)
Region p = 0.013 p = 0.403 p < 0.001 p = 0.004  
 East China (n = 292) 72 (67) 26 (48) 71 (64) 169 (124) Reference
 North China (n = 17)d 82 (53) 13 (20) 38 (19) 133 (78) −45 (−95,−3)f
 Central China (n = 52) 69 (65) 20 (27) 40 (36) 129 (95) −64 (−98,−31)f
 South China (n = 64) 48 (45) 27 (45) 45 (37) 120 (100) −51 (−78,−22)f
 Southwest China (n = 68) 65 (48) 26 (37) 50 (67) 140 (103) −38 (−68,−8)f
 Northwest China (n = 36) 97 (132) 38 (52) 44 (46) 179 (191) −5 (−52,71)
Hospital p < 0.001 p = 0.745 p = 0.002 p = 0.002  
 Level 3 (n = 298) 73 (60) 28 (50) 66 (67) 167 (124) Reference
 Level 2 (n = 119) 78 (100) 22 (35) 56 (45) 156 (138) 3 (−21,33)
 Level 1 and lower (n = 112) 51 (48) 26 (38) 45 (43) 122 (88) −34 (−61,−10)f
Virus type p = 0.868 p = 0.973 p = 0.220 p = 0.565  
 Untypede (n = 307) 71 (79) 25 (42) 60 (62) 157 (130) Reference
 Influenza A (n = 164) 67 (53) 27 (50) 61 (56) 156 (106) −10 (−31,13)
 Influenza B (n = 58) 70 (57) 27 (42) 47 (41) 144 (119) 2 (−25,41)
  1. aMean (standard deviation) was presented to facilitate their use in economic evaluations despite the skew in sample distributions of costs. However, Rank-sum test was used for comparing two samples, and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparing three or more groups because the cost distribution is too right skewed
  2. bCompared to the reference, absolute increase or decrease of the total cost (in US$). And we obtained the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap percentile confidence interval using the R function “boot.ci”
  3. cRisk status: high risk patients refer to those with underlying medical conditions including: chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and chronic renal disease, etc. Other patients without these underlying diseases are low risk patients
  4. dNorth China: 2 patients from Northeast China were grouped into North China
  5. eUntyped: Laboratory tests for influenza virus type identification were not conducted
  6. f p < 0.05: significant differences