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Table 3 Costs per episode for influenza inpatients and associated risk factors in China, 2013 (US$)a

From: The economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations in China: a retrospective survey

Characteristic Direct cost Indirect costs Total cost Multiple linear regression
Medical cost Non-medical cost (95 % Confidence interval)b
Total (n = 254) 1038 (1315) 277 (288) 197 (169) 1511 (1465)  
Gender p=0.479 p=0.863 p=0. 295 p=0. 707  
 Female (n = 107) 1131 (1794) 295 (361) 201 (160) 1627 (1927) Reference
 Male (n = 147) 969 (806) 263 (220) 194 (176) 1427 (1004) −215 (−688,116)
Age group (years) p < 0.001 p = 0.046 p = 0. 018 p < 0.001  
  < 5 (n = 144) 980 (775) 315 (336) 213 (178) 1508 (1021) Reference
 5–14 (n = 79) 1031 (2014) 229 (197) 157 (150) 1417 (2112) −52 (−402,566)
 15–59 (n = 27) 1175 (899) 219 (207) 227 (168) 1621 (1059) 88 (−529,639)
  ≥ 60 (n = 4) 2300 (1539) 230 (234) 205 (73) 2735 (1821) 88 (−529,639)c
Risk statusd p < 0.001 p=0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001  
 Low risk (n = 120) 810 (661) 220 (179) 159 (132) 1189 (814) Reference
 High risk (n = 134) 1241 (1677) 328 (351) 231 (190) 1800 (1820) 617 (293,1290)f
Area p = 0. 797 p = 0. 285 p < 0.001 p = 0.330  
 Urban area (n = 171) 949 (760) 259 (270) 251 (177) 1486 (958) Reference
 Rural area (n = 83) 1221 (2022) 313 (320) 86 (70) 1620 (2169) 190 (−170,950)
Region p = 0.041 p = 0.518 p = 0.020 p = 0.089  
 East China (n = 82) 888 (749) 293 (362) 253 (215) 1433 (1019) Reference
 North China (n = 31)e 1256 (930) 350 (339) 212 (149) 1817 (1132) 505 (−15,1163)
 Central China (n = 67) 983 (919) 252 (232) 162 (138) 1397 (1150) 26 (−310,456)
 South China (n = 31) 896 (655) 251 (224) 172 (137) 1318 (833) −135 (−576,308)
 Southwest China (n = 24) 892 (986) 237 (197) 148 (119) 1277 (1157) −82 (−582,513)
 Northwest China (n = 19) 1935 (3766) 267 (193) 158 (109) 2360 (3809) 1076 (−118,4562)
Hospital p = 0.022 p = 0.400 p = 0. 182 p = 0.040  
 Level 3 (n = 177) 1090 (1422) 270 (240) 203 (168) 1563 (1527) Reference
 Level 2 (n = 58) 894 (750) 283 (401) 202 (189) 1379 (1065) −83 (−618,261)
 Level 1 and lower (n = 19) 989 (1633) 316 (303) 130 (93) 1436 (1925) −213 (−1362,1101)
Virus type p = 0.300 p = 0.029 p = 0.074 p = 0.178  
 Untypedg (n = 184) 1083 (1462) 292 (294) 212 (182) 1587 (1611) Reference
 Influenza A (n = 34) 953 (969) 222 (201) 171 (132) 1346 (1114) −98 (−536,320)
 Influenza B (n = 36) 887 (636) 250 (321) 145 (112) 1282 (817) −481 (−996,−69)f
  1. aMean (standard deviation) was presented to facilitate their use in economic evaluations despite the skew in sample distributions of costs. However, Rank-sum test was used for comparing two samples, and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparing three or more groups because the cost distribution is too right skewed
  2. bCompared to the reference, absolute increase or decrease of the total cost (in US$). And we obtained the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap percentile confidence interval using the R function “boot.ci”
  3. c4 patients in the ≥60 age group were grouped into 15–59 years of age group in the multivariable linear regression analysis
  4. dRisk status: high risk patients refer to those with underlying medical conditions including: chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and chronic renal disease, etc. Other patients without these underlying diseases are low risk patients
  5. eNorth China: 1 patients from Northeast China were grouped into North China
  6. f p < 0.05: significant differences
  7. gUntyped: Laboratory tests for influenza virus type identification were not conducted