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Table 4 Studies on combination therapy for VL in India

From: Current challenges in treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis in India: a public health perspective

Authors Year Drug Type of study Patients (N) Treatment scheme Definite cure (95 % CI) Reference
Thakur et al. 1991 SSG and Pentamidine Randomised controlled comparative trial 312 Group-1 : Pentamidine (i.v) 4 mg/kg/day three times weekly until parasitological cure was achieved Group 1:78 % Group 2: 84 % Group 3: 98 % [128]
Group-2: Pentamidine (i.v) 4 mg/kg/day three times weekly + SSG (i.m) 20 mg/kg/day for 20 days
Group-3: Pentamidine (i.v) 4 mg/kg/day three times weekly until parasitological cure was achieved + SSG (i.m) 20 mg/kg/day for 20 days
Thakur et al. 1992 Paramomycin and SSG Non comparative study 22 Paramomycin (i.v) 12 mg/kg/day + 81.8 % [47]
SSG (i.m) 20 mg/kg/day for 20 days
Thakur et al. 2000 SSG and Paramomycin Randomized comparative study 149 Group 1: Paramomycin 12 mg/kg/day + SSG (i.m) 20 mg/kg/day for 21 days Group 1:92.3 % Group 2: 93.8 %, Group 3: 53.1 % [141]
Group 2: Paramomycin 18 mg/kg/day + SSG (i.m) 20 mg/kg/day for 20 days
Group 3: SSG (i.m) 20 mg/kg/day for 21 days
Das et al. 2001 Pentamidine and Allopurinol Randomized controlled comparative trial 158 Group 1: Pentamidine (i.m) 2 mg/kg/day on alternate days + allopurinol (oral) 15 mg/kg/day for 30 days Group 1: 91.2 %, Group 2: 74.3 % [67]
Group 2: : Pentamidine (i.m) 2 mg/kg/day on alternate days for 30 days
Sundar et al. 2008 L-AmB and Miltefosine Randomized non-comparative, group sequential 226 Group1: L-AmB (i.v) 5 mg/kg single dose Group 1: 91 % (78–97); [142]
Group 2: L-AmB (i.v) 5 mg/kg single dose + miltefosine 100 mg/day for 10 days Group 2: 98 % (87–100);
Group3: L- AmB (i.v) 5 mg/kg single dose + miltefosine 100 mg/day for 14 days Group 3: 96 % (84–99);
Group 4: L-AmB (i.v) 3.75 mg/kg single dose + miltefosine 100 mg/day for 14 days Group 4: 96 % (84–99);
Group 5: L-AmB (i.v) 5 mg/kg single dose + miltefosine 100 mg/day for 7 days Group 5: 98 % (87–100)
Sundar et al. 2010 L-AmB, Miltefosine Non-randomized multicentric trial 135 L-AmB (i.v) 5 mg/kg for single dose + miltefosine (oral) 2.5 mg/kg/day for 14 days 91.9 % [143]
Sundar et al. 2011 AmB, L-AmB, Paramomycin, Miltefosine Open label non-inferiority randomized control trial 634 Group 1: AmB (i.v) 1 mg/kg on alternate days for 30 days Group 1: 93 % (88–96); [144]
Group 2: L-AmB (i.v) 5 mg/kg for single dose + miltefosine (oral) 50 mg/kg for 7 days Group 2: 98 % (93–99)
Group 3: Paramomycin (i.m) 11 mg/kg/day for 10 days Group 3: 98 % (93–99);
Group 4: Miltefosine (oral) 50 mg/day for 10 days + paramomycin (i.m) 11 mg/kg/day for 10 days Group 4: 99 % (95–100);