Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Socioeconomic risk factors for malaria in children aged six months to 10 years in Nagongera, Uganda

From: Why is malaria associated with poverty? Findings from a cohort study in rural Uganda

Characteristic Malaria infection Incidence of clinical malaria
PR (Total blood smears)a OR (95 % CI)b P Malaria incidence (total person years)c IRR (95 % CI)d P
Mean age during follow-up 6 m to <3 years 19.2 (657) 1 <0.001 4.1 (134) 1 <0.001
3 to <5 years 27.6 (699) 1.60 (1.18–2.18) 4.2 (177) 1.01 (0.85–1.19)
5 to <11 year 35.7 (2011) 2.34 (1.77–3.09) 2.3 (491) 0.54 (0.46–0.65)
Gender Female 29.9 (1518) 1 0.54 2.7 (361) 1 0.12
Male 31.5 (1849) 1.07 (0.86–1.35) 3.2 (441) 1.13 (0.97–1.32)
Wealth index tertile Lowest 38.4 (1087) 1 0.001 3.0 (258) 1 0.66
Middle 29.6 (1170) 0.65 (0.48–0.87) 3.1 (280) 1.12 (0.90–1.40)
Highest 25.3 (1010) 0.52 (0.35–0.78) 2.9 (241) 1.05 (0.83–1.34)
Female caregiver’s level of education None 33.4 (788) 1 0.21 3.5 (188) 1 0.005
Incomplete 1ry 31.7 (1703) 0.96 (0.68–1.36) 3.0 (406) 0.83 (0.69–1.01)
1ry or higher 26.6 (593) 0.74 (0.48–1.15) 2.4 (140) 0.69 (0.53–0.91)
Distance to health facility 3–6 km 33.4 (1994) 1 0.07 2.9 (474) 1 0.56
0–2 km 27.1 (1373) 0.75 (0.55–1.02) 3.1 (328) 1.06 (0.87–1.29)
Time for female caregiver to seek treatment for fever ≥1 day 29.5 (1434) 1 0.55 3.3 (342) 1 0.31
Same day 27.5 (509) 0.86 (0.51–1.42) 2.5 (120) 0.87 (0.67–1.13)
Proportion of household expenditure on health <25 % 31.0 (3059) 1 0.65 3.1 (730) 1 0.15
25–50 % 34.1 (208) 1.15 (0.63–2.10) 2.0 (49) 0.73 (0.48–1.12)
House typee Traditional 32.9 (2794) 1 <0.001 3.0 (665) 1 0.67
Modern 20.4 (573) 0.51 (0.36–0.71) 2.7 (136) 0.93 (0.68–1.28)
People per sleeping room >2 people 31.9 (2752) 1 0.24 3.1 (656) 1 0.29
0–2 people 27.0 (515) 0.78 (0.51–1.19) 2.6 (123) 0.86 (0.64, 1.14)
Days eating meat per week 0–2 days 34.6 (2123) 1 0.007 3.0 (507) 1 0.71
3–7 days 24.7 (1144) 0.64 (0.47–0.88) 2.9 (271) 0.96 (0.77–1.20)
Meals per day 2 meals 33.1 (2439) 1 0.05 3.0 (581) 1 0.78
3–4 meals 25.6 (828) 0.72 (0.52–1.00) 2.9 (197) 0.96 (0.75–1.24)
  1. aPR: Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate: total positive blood smears/total blood smears
  2. bOR: Odds Ratio adjusted for age at the time of the blood smear and gender. CI Confidence interval
  3. cMalaria incidence per person year: total malaria episodes/total person years at risk
  4. dIRR: Incidence Rate Ratio adjusted for mean age during follow-up and gender
  5. eModern house: Cement, wood or metal wall; tiled or metal roof and closed eaves. Traditional house: all other houses