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Table 5 Marginal effects of household and respondent covariates on IRS preferences

From: Household perceptions and subjective valuations of indoor residual spraying programmes to control malaria in northern Uganda

  Prob. in high-WTA group Marginal effect on expected WTA to forego:
  Marginal effect Std. Err. 10 % decrease in malaria risk One round of DDT One round of ICON
Household-level variables
Household size (members) +0.39 % (0.706 %) +$0.07 +$0.35 +$0.34
Average household age (years) −0.34 %* (0.191 %) -$0.06 -$0.30 -$0.29
Number of children under 10 −0.93 % (1.309 %) -$0.18 -$0.83 -$0.81
Value of household assets −0.01 % (0.004 %) -$0.00 -$0.01 -$0.01
Monthly household income +0.05 % (0.038 %) +$0.01 +$0.04 +$0.04
Monthly malaria incidence −4.06 % (7.526 %) -$0.77 -$3.63 -$3.54
Participated in previous IRSa +8.53 % (7.210 %) +$1.62 +$7.63 +$7.43
Mosquito nets per person +9.70 %** (4.862 %) +$1.84 +$8.68 +$8.45
Respondent-level variables
Age +0.11 % (0.132 %) +$0.02 +$0.10 +$0.10
Female1 −5.71 %** (2.916 %) -$1.08 -$5.11 -$4.97
Education \( \ge \) some secondarya −6.26 % (4.423 %) -$1.19 -$5.61 -$5.46
Ill with malaria in past month?a +5.05 % (3.886 %) +$0.96 +$4.52 +$4.40
Perceived malaria risk +11.10 % (9.599 %) +$2.10 +$9.93 +$9.67
Respondent believes: a      
   Mosquitoes cause malaria +3.56 % (5.677 %) +$0.68 +$3.19 +$3.10
   Standing water predicts mosquito abundance +7.56 %*** (2.787 %) +$1.43 +$6.77 +$6.59
   IRS is effective +19.45 %*** (6.897 %) +$3.69 +$17.41 +$16.95
  1. Notes: Estimated covariate effects from the latent class logit model (Table 4 and Additional file 2: Table A1). ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at the 1, 5 and 10 % levels, respectively. For WTA calculations, 10 % discount rate is applied to convert the choice model coefficients to annual WTA [36]. a Marginal effect calculated for discrete change in binary variable