Outcome

ANCDR

Grade 2 Rate

Grade 2 Fraction


Poverty Index

3.53 (7.93, 1.12)

—

0.06 (0.002, 0.12)

Illiteracy

4.46 (1.25, 10.3)

4.75 (0.74, 12.8)

0.08 (0.15, 0.03)

Unemployment

—

—

0.06 (0.14, 0.008)

Rural

0.9 (0.74, 2.14)

—

—

Scaled radiance

0.01 (0.002, 0.02)

0.03 (0.02, 0.05)

2×10^{−4} (− 2×10^{−5}, 2×10^{−4})

Time

0.04 (0.07, 0.02)

0.2 (0.09, 0.26)

0.004 (0.002, 0.005)

Marginal R^{2}

0.04

0.01

0.02

Conditional R^{2}

0.68

0.60

0.21

 Models were selected using Akaike Information criterion (AIC) from all subsets of the regressors: poverty index, illiteracy, unemployment, rural population fraction, and scaled radiance (see text for details). All models include calendar time in years, the enhanced case finding covariate, a random slope, and a random intercept. Marginal R^{2} values indicate the fraction of variance explained by the fixed effects, and conditional R^{2} indicate the fraction of varianceexplained by both fixed and random effects as described in the text. Confidence intervals derived by spatial block bootstrap (with a radius of 1.5 degrees); see text for details