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Table 4 Correlation between malaria, BSI, UTI, GII and CBPN and demographic, clinical and laboratory data

From: Treatable causes of fever among children under five years in a seasonal malaria transmission area in Burkina Faso

  Malaria Blood stream infection Urinary tract infection Gastro-intestinal infection CBPN
  OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Gender           
 Male 1   1   1   1   1  
 Female 1.19 (0.88–1.61) 0.255 1.01 (0.53–1.91) 0.969 1.22 (0.34–4.45) 0.752 1.18 (0.83–1.69) 0.350 1.18 (0.82–1.70) 0.381
Age           
 ≤12 months 1   1   1   1   1  
 >12 months 2.85 (2.02–4.06) <0.001* 0.70 (0.37–1.39) 0.299 0.34 (0.09–1.25) 0.094 2.88 (1.86–4.58) <0.001* 0.90 (0.61–1.35) 0.609
Temperature           
 37.5 °C–38.5 °C 1   1   1   1   1  
 38.5 °C–39.5 °C 1.26 (0.91–1.76) 0.166 1.28 (0.64–2.51) 0.479 1.93 (0.50–7.92) 0.330 0.99 (0.67–1.47) 0.963 1.21 (0.81–1.80) 0.334
 >39.5 °C 2.06 (1.31–3.26) 0.002* 0.87 (0.28–2.23) 0.789 0.86 (0.04–5.90) 0.891 1.13 (0.67–1.89) 0.647 0.90 (0.50–1.55) 0.714
White cell counts           
 4 × 103–12 × 103 1   1   1   1   1  
 <4 × 103 cells/mm3 1.18 (0.33–4.67) 0.803 0.35 (0.02–7.31) 0.828 0.66 (0.20–26.68) 0.828 1.55 (0.36–6.70) 0.540 1.13 (0.01–2.31) 0.166
 ≥12 × 103 mm3 0.58 (0.43–0.79) <0.001* 1.03 (0.55–1.91) 0.206 2.25 (0.64–7.92) 0.206 0.79 (0.55–1.14) 0.211 1.36 (0.94–1.95) 0.100
Anaemia           
 ≥11 g/dl 1   1   1 1 1   1  
 <8 g/dl 4.06 (2.35–7.20) <0.001* 1.60 (0.54–5.80) 0.426 1.50 (0.31–10.70) 0.631 1.71 (0.39–1.28) 0.252 1.16 (0.64–1.18) 0.625
 8 g/dl–11 g/dl 2.51 (1.53–4.24) <0.001* 1.25 (0.47–4.33) 0.688 0.34 (0.06–2.65) 0.248 0.60 (0.35–1.01) 0.052 0.81 (0.46–1.44) 0.453
Vaccination according EPI           
 Yes 1   1   1   1   1  
 No 0.78 (0.52–1.14) 0.204 0.68 (0.25–1.58) 0.409 0.12 (0.01–2.05) 0.145 1.23 (0.81–1.98) 0.294 0.98 (0.60–1.58) 0.950
 Unknown 1.32 (0.86–2.05) 0.204 0.90 (0.33–2.10) 0.829 0.16 (0.01–2.66) 0.201 1.11 (0.64–1.88) 0.709 1.06 (0.63–1.73) 0.829
  1. *P-value is statistically significant
  2. BSI Blood stream infection, UTI Urinary tract infection, GII Gastro - intestinal infection, CBPN Common bacterial pathogens of nasopharynx