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Table 2 Therapeutic responses in malarious children following artemisinin-based combination chemotherapies

From: Declining responsiveness of childhood Plasmodium falciparum infections to artemisinin-based combination treatments ten years following deployment as first-line antimalarials in Nigeria

Variables All treatments P value Artemether-lumefantrine P value Artesunate-amodiaquine P value
2009–2010 (n = 743) 2014–2015 (n = 598) All (n = 1341) 2009–2010 (n = 360) 2014–2015 (n = 303) 2009–2010 (n = 384) 2014–2015 (n = 295)
Clinical response
 FCT (day)
  Mean 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.002 1.1 1.3 0.002 1.1 1.1 0.36
  95% CI 1.08–1.14 1.2–1.3 1.1–1.2   1.1–1.2 1.2–1.4   1.05–1.12 1.1–1.2  
Parasitological responses
 APPD1 (%) 398 (53.6) 370 (61.9) 768 (57.3) 0.002 210 (58.3) 199 (65.7) 0.06 188 (49.1) 171 (58) 0.02
 APPD2 (%) 38 (5.1) 153 (25.6) 191 (14.2) <  0.0001 21 (5.8) 83 (27.4) <  0.0001 17 (4.4) 70 (23.7) <  0.0001
 APPD3 (%) 7 (0.9) 14 (2.3) 21 (1.6) 0.07 2 (0.6) 9 (3) 0.03 5 (1.3) 5 (1.7) 0.92
PRRD1
 Geometric mean 444 409 428 0.75 318 270 0.63 609 627 0.86
 95% CI 349–565 315–531 359–511   222–454 186–391   440–841 438–898  
PRRD2
 Geometric mean 7594 11136 4723 <  0.0001 11112 4439 0.0002 11 158 5034 0.007
 95% CI 6709–8597 9742–12729 3802–5868   9092–13 581 3276–6016   9335–13 337 3691–6864  
PCT (day)
 Mean 1.6 1.9 1.8 <  0.0001 1.7 2 <  0.0001 1.6 1.9 <  0.0001
 95% CI 1.55–1.64 1.9–2.0 1.7–1.8   1.6–1.7 1.9–2.1   1.5–1.6 1.8–2.0  
Haematological response
 AnRT (day)
  Mean 10.6 10.1 10.4 0.53 11.1 11 0.9 10 9.2 0.4
  95% CI 9.7–11.5 9.0–11.2 9.7–11.1   9.8–12.5 9.3–12.8   8.8–11.3 7.8–10.7  
  1. FCT Fever clearance time, APPD1: Asexual parasite positivity 1 day post-treatment initiation, APPD2 Asexual parasite positivity 2 days post-treatment initiation, APPD3 Asexual parasite positivity 3 days post-treatment initiation, PRRD1 Parasite reduction ratio 1 day post-treatment initiation, PRRD2 Parasite reduction ratio 2 days post-treatment initiation, PCT Parasite clearance time, AnRT Anaemia recovery time