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Table 5 Association between catastrophic costs and passive case finding (PCF)/ active case finding (ACF) adjusted for each exposure variable at time, Nepal, 2018

From: The role of active case finding in reducing patient incurred catastrophic costs for tuberculosis in Nepal

VariableCases of catastrophic costs per diagnostic method n/N (%) aORb (95% confidence interval)P-value c
PCF
N = 45
ACF
N = 39
StratifiedPooled
Total population24/39 (61)20/45 (44)2 (0.77–5.25) 
Variables
Gender
 Male20/31 (65)14/28 (50)1.8 (0.56–5.89)1.8 (0.75–4.44)0.993
 Female4/8 (50)6/17 (35)1.8 (0.24–13.84)
Age
 < 6020/25 (80)14/30 (47)4.6 (1.19–19.32)2.1 (0.86–5.17)0.043
 ≥ 604/14 (29)6/15 (40)0.6 (0.93–3.61)
Disease category
 New case19/33 (58)17/38 (45)1.7 (0.59–4.78)2.0 (0.83–4.78)0.330
 Relapse5/6 (83)3/7 (43)6.7 (0.34–392.48)
Poverty line
 Bellow4/5 (80)5/8 (62)2.4 (0.11–156.99)2.1 (0.87–5.19)0.924
 Above20/34 (58)15/37 (40)2.1 (0.73–6.03)
Dissaving
 Yes13/18 (72)9/15 (60)1.7 (0.32–9.60)1.8 (0.75–4.49)0.922
 No11/21 (52)11/30 (37)1.9 (0.53–6.84)
Financial impact
 Poorer /Much poorer15/22 (68)14/26 (54)1.8 (0.48–7.15)2.1 (0.85–5.06)0.758
 Unchanged9/17 (53)6/19 (31)2.4 (0.52–11.78)
Social impactd     
 Yes10/14 (71)14/23 (61)1.6 (0.32–9.13)2.5 (0.98–6.23)0.437
 No14/25 (56)6/22 (27)3.4 (0.86–14.08)
  1. a Five ACF and 11 PCF patients with “zero” annual family income excluded from this analysis
  2. b Odds ratio (OR) was calculated using Mantel-Haenszel method
  3. c P-value is from homogeneity test in Mantel-Haenszel analysis
  4. d Social impact: divorce or social exclusion or food insecurity or loss of job or Interrupted schooling