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Table 1 Patterns of tobacco smoking change in people living with HIV

From: Changes in smoking patterns after HIV diagnosis or antiretroviral treatment initiation: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

 Prevalence (95% CI)95% Prediction intervalN studiesN participantsHeterogeneityP Egger test
H (954% CI)I2 (95% CI)P value
Current smokers at study initiation38.1 (24.7–52.6)1.5–87.4814 44615.7 (14.2–17.3)99.6 (99.5–99.7)< 0.00010.458
Current smokers at study completion35.6 (6.6–72.5)0.0–1004831224.2 (21.7–27.0)99.8 (99.8–99.9)< 0.00010.321
Former smokers at study initiation21.4 (15.1–28.5)3.1–49.8825 12511.7 (10.4–13.2)99.3 (99.1–99.4)< 0.00010.528
Former smokers at study completion17.6 (5.1–35.5)NA213586.497.5 (93.9–99.0)< 0.0001NA
Never smokers at study initiation28.6 (20.3–37.8)4.0–63.8825 12514.0 (12.6–15.5)99.5 (99.4–99.6)< 0.00010.930
Never smokers at study completion6.1 (4.8–7.6)NA11062NANANANA
Shifting from never to current smoking during study2.1 (0.9–3.6)NA215181.765.9 (0.0–92.3)0.087NA
Shifting from former to current smoking during study1.5 (0.6–2.9)NA1456NANANANA
Stopped smoking during the study (shifting from current to former smoker)10.5 (7.2–14.4)0.3–31.8421912.6 (1.8–4.1)85.5 (64.2–94.1)0.00010.520
Stayed in the “never smoking” category10.1 (3.0–20.5)NA214395.096.0 (88.7–98.6)< 0.0001NA
Tried to quit smoking but failed7.1 (4.4–10.3)NA1296NANANANA
Willed to quit smoking but did not initiate any quitting attempt0.4 (0.0–1.3)NA1456NANANANA
  1. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus; NA not applicable; CI Confidence interval