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Table 3 Moran bivariate correlation, multivariate regression, and spatial regression between COVID-19 incidence rate and social determinants of health. Brazil, 2020

From: Human development, social vulnerability and COVID-19 in Brazil: a study of the social determinants of health

Social determinants Bivariate correlation Multivariate regression Spatial regression
Moran I P value Coefficient P value Coefficient P value
Block 1: synthetic indicators of social vulnerability and human development
 Social Vulnerability Index 0.076 0.002 157.70 <  0.001 85.992 <  0.001
 Municipal Human Development Index -0.022 0.002 297.64 <  0.001 184.08 <  0.001
Block 2: Domains of the Social Vulnerability Index
 SVI urban infrastructure 0.012 0.024 -0.015 0.664 - -
 SVI human Capital 0.041 0.002 -14.374 0.445 - -
 SVI income and work 0.029 0.005 -0.150 1.000 - -
Block 3: Domains of the Municipal Human Development Index
 MHDI longevity -0.004 0.050 49.268 0.339 -2.2737 0.960
 MHDI education -0.018 0.002 71.587 0.002 60.566 0.004
 MHDI income -0.028 0.001 -65.9104 0.052 -26.068 0.394
Block 4: SVI urban infrastructure domain
 Percentage of people in households with inadequate water supply and sewage 0.111 0.002 0.298482 0.00323 0.0538755 0.55741
 Percentage of the population living in urban households without garbage collection service 0.105 0.002 -0.105842 0.40675 -0.0830367 0.47279
 Percentage of people who live in households with per capita income less than half minimum wage (2010) and who spend more than an hour to reach place of work 0.074 0.005 1.19532 0.00000 0.78499 0.00001
Block 5: SVI human capital domain
 Mortality up to 1 year old -0.019 0.010 -0.0233645 0.94510 0.068086 0.82536
 Percentage of children aged 0 to 5 who do not attend school 0.026 0.002 -0.480704 0.0050 -0.370537 0.0733
 Percentage of people aged 6 to 14 who do not attend school 0.164 0.001 2.99476 0.00000 1.2672 0.00621
 Percentage of women aged 10 to 17 who had children 0.0899 0.002 2.0033 0.01684 1.28813 0.09273
 Percentage of mothers who are heads of household, without complete elementary school and with children under 15 years of age 0.0556 0.002 0.0249375 0.88425 -0.194968 0.21320
 Illiteracy rate of the population aged 15 or over -0.0456 0.004 -1.11608 0.00049 -0.66807 0.02257
 Percentage of children living in households where none of the residents have completed elementary school -0.0175 0.002 -0.372317 0.05105 -0.235047 0.17791
 Percentage of people aged 15 to 24 who do not study, do not work and have a per capita household income equal to or less than half minimum wage (2010) 0.029 0.002 0.859119 0.00164 0.572682 0.02164
Block 6: SVI income and labor domain
 Proportion of people with per capita household income equal to or less than half minimum wage (2010) 0.0281 0.005 0.823252 0.00000 0.496891 0.00007
 Unemployment rate of the population aged 18 or over -0.0065 0.01 -0.643252 0.15191 -0.361881 0.37497
 Percentage of persons aged 18 or over with no complete elementary education and informally employed 0.0048 0.002 -1.64513 0.00000 -1.05841 0.00000
 Percentage of people in households with per capita income less than half the minimum wage (2010) and dependent on the elderly -0.0031 0.198 - - - -
 Activity rate of persons aged 10 to 14 years of age 0.0943 0.005 1.31266 0.00000 0.586937 0.00466
Block 7: MHDI longevity domain
 Life expectancy at birth -0.0044 0.030 0.986428 0.02657 0.89851 0.02545
Block 8: MHDI education domain
 Subindex education 0.0100 0.002 2728.69 0.52713 294.603 0.93733
 Percentage of individuals aged 18 or older who have completed elementary school 0.0100 0.002 -26.5486 0.53830 -2.21157 0.93733
 School attendance index -0.0430 0.002 74.3527 0.32880 -40.6921 0.56735
 Percentage of individuals aged 5 to 6 years in school -0.0731 0.002 -0.55266 0.03744 -0.017439 0.94772
 Percentage of individuals aged 11 to 13 years old who are enrolled in the final years of elementary school or who have completed elementary school -0.0775 0.005 -0.536377 0.08705 0.644394 0.03203
 Percentage individuals aged 15 to 17 years, with complete primary -0.0226 0.002 -0.405591 0.21912 0.0235485 0.93707
 Percentage individuals aged 18 to 20 years who have graduated from secondary school -0.005 0.382 - - - -
Block 9: MHDI income domain
 Per capita income -0.0113 0.002 0.228899 0.00799 0.199184 0.01070
Block 10: Other vulnerability and development indicators
 Illiteracy rate (aged 18 years or over) -0.037 0.062 - - - -
 Illiteracy rate (aged 25 years or over) -0.035 0.064 - - - -
 Per capita income of those vulnerable to poverty -0.060 0.002 -0.109244 0.00003 0.00382703 0.96425
 Percentage of income from income from work 0.074 0.001 0.869056 0.19392 0.309083 0.10397
 Gini Index 0.049 0.170 - - - -
 Percentage of employees with a formal contract (aged 18 years or over) -0.055 0.002 -0.622194 0.19392 -0.533661 0.22342
 Percentage of employees without a formal contract (aged 18 years or over) 0.039 0.4060 - - - -
 Percentage of public sector workers (aged 18 years or over) 0.0286 0.002 0.457244 0.45981 0.566954 0.31684
 Percentage of self-employed workers (aged 18 years or over) 0.1020 0.001 0.386326 0.12980 -0.092865 0.69078
 Percentage of employers (aged 18 years or over) -0.0292 0.005 -5.14761 0.00078 -4.63911 0.00094
 Degree of formality of employed persons (aged 18 years or over) -0.0424 0.005 0.102908 0.79265 -0.0738698 0.83667
 Percentage of employed persons with complete elementary education (aged 18 years or over) -0.0039 0.005 0.99806 0.03399 0.889692 0.03927
 Percentage of employed persons with complete high school (aged 18 years or over) -0.0074 0.002 0.71983 0.20002 0.189241 0.71284
 Percentage of employed persons with complete higher education (aged 18 years or over) -0.0378 0.002 -2.44724 0.00030 -1.59828 0.00990
 Average income of employed persons (aged 18 years or over) -0.0036 0.002 0.0317216 0.00145 0.0317537 0.00050
 Percentage of employed persons without income (aged 18 years or over) 0.0422 0.001 0.890013 0.00021 0.373849 0.08911
  1. MHDI Municipal Human Development Index, SVI Social Vulnerability Index. - Not applicable