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Table 2 Main clinical, laboratory and diagnosis data of imported loiasis. Stratification of the data according to risk markers: sex and age

From: Loiasis in sub-Saharan migrants living in Spain with emphasis of cases from Equatorial Guinea

 Migrants
(N = 131)
SexAge, years
Female (n1 = 82)Male (n2 = 49)P-value< 45 (n3 = 77)≥ 45 (n4 = 54)P-value
Clinical data, n (%)
 12Asymptomatic48 (36.6)28 (34.1)20 (40.8)0.44330 (39.0)18 (33.3)0.511
 Symptomatic83 (63.4)54 (65.9)29 (59.2)47 (61.0)36 (66.7)
 Calabar swelling30 (22.9)25 (30.5)5 (10.2)0.008*14 (18.2)16 (29.6)0.125
 Eye worm19 (14.5)17 (20.7)2 (4.1)0.009*11 (14.3)8 (14.8)0.933
 Subcutaneous step3 (2.3)2 (2.4)1 (2.0)0.8832 (2.6)1 (1.9)0.779
Laboratory data, n (%)
Eosinophilia (n = 131)
 Without eosinophilia16 (12.2)10 (12.2)6 (12.2)0.93115 (19.5)1 (1.9)<  0.001*
 Relative eosinophilia4 (3.1)3 (3.7)1 (2.0)3 (3.9)1 (1.9)
 Mild eosinophilia33 (25.2)20 (24.4)13 (26.5)26 (33.8)7 (13.0)
 Moderate eosinophilia65 (49.6)42 (51.2)23 (46.9)29 (37.7)36 (66.7)
 High eosinophilia13 (9.9)7 (8.5)6 (12.2)4 (5.2)9 (16.7)
Immunoglobulin E (n = 129)
 Normal16 (12.4)12 (15.0)4 (8.2)0.39411 (14.7)5 (9.3)0.056
 Mild hyper-IgE6 (4.7)5 (6.3)1 (2.0)5 (6.7)1 (1.9)
 Moderate hyper-IgE29 (22.5)16 (20.0)13 (26.5)21 (28.0)8 (14.8)
 High hyper-IgE78 (60.5)47 (58.8)31 (63.3)38 (50.7)40 (74.1)
Direct diagnosis, n (%)
 Only Microfilariae95 (72.5)53 (64.6)42 (85.7)0.05059 (76.6)36 (66.7)0.403
 Microfilariae + Calabar swellings7 (5.3)3 (3.7)4 (8.2)2 (2.6)5 (9.3)
 Microfilariae + eye3 (2.3)2 (2.4)1 (2.0)1 (1.3)2 (3.7)
 Microfilariae + Calabar swellings + eye5 (3.8)5 (6.1)04 (5.2)1 (1.9)
 Microfilariae + eye + subcutaneous lesion1 (0.8)1 (1.2)01 (1.3)0
 Microfilariae + Calabar swellings + eye + subcutaneous lesion1 (0.8)1 (1.2)001 (1.9)
 Only Calabar swellings10 (7.6)9 (11.0)1 (2.0)5 (6.5)5 (9.3)
 Only eye1 (0.8)1 (1.2)01 (1.3)0
 Calabar swellings + eye7 (5.3)7 (8.5)03 (3.9)4 (7.4)
 Eye + subcutaneous lesion1 (0.8)01 (2.0)1 (1.3)0
  1. *P < 0.05