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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable Poisson regression of factors associated with catastrophic costs, Kenya patient costs survey (2016)

From: Determinants of household catastrophic costs for drug sensitive tuberculosis patients in Kenya

Variable
(n = 1071)
Unadjusted prevalence ratio
(95% CI)
P-value Adjusted prevalence ratio**
(95% CI)
P-value***
Hospitalization (ref = not hospitalized) 3.1 (2.1–4.4)  < 0.001 2.8 (1.8–4.5)  < 0.001
Treatment delay (ref =  < 4 weeks) 1.6 (1.2–1.9)  < 0.001 1.5 (1.3–1.7)  < 0.001
Type of facility offering treatment
(ref = private)
0.8 (0.6–0.9) 0.032 0.8 (0.6–0.9) 0.021
BMI 0.98 (0.97–0.99)  < 0.001 0.97 (0.96–0.98)  < 0.001
Pre-TB HH exp_quintiles
(ref = Quintile 5)
    
Poorest Q1 6.3 (3.9–10.3)  < 0.001 6.2 (4.0–9.7)  < 0.001
Q2 3.40 (2.1–5.6)  < 0.001 3.4 (2.1–5.3)  < 0.001
Q3 2.5 (1.4– 4.2) 0.002 2.4 (1.5–3.9)  < 0.001
Q4 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 0.111 1.6 (0.9–3.0) 0.110
TB type (ref = EPTB) 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.050   
X-ray test (ref = no X-Ray) 1.3 (1.1–1.56) 0.018 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.147
Constant    0.19  < 0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, Pre-TB exp pre-TB annual HH expenditure quintiles, Q quintile, EPTB extrapulmonary TB, Xray radiological examination
  2. *Table includes only significant variables from univariable analysis, **Adjusted for confounders: age, sex, residence
  3. Postestimation tests for final model, variance inflation factor (VIF) > 10 for type of facility & TB type. Type of facility maintained in multivariable analysis a priori due to public health significance. Goodness of fit: Pearson’s chi square: non-significant > 0.05