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Table 2 Summary of brucellosis studies in cattle, small ruminants and humans in Morocco

From: Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

Study category No. of studies/reports Publication type (no. of studies) Period of studies (no. of studies) Diagnostic tests (no. of studies)b Sampling (no. of studies) No. ind (No. of studies)c Range of ind seroprev (%)/incidence No. herds/flocks (No. of studies)c Range of herd seroprev (%) References
Cattle       119,288     
Bacteriology 8 T(3), J(5) 1960s(2), 1970s(2), 1980s(3), 2010s(1) NA NA >1007 (6) NA NA NA [32, 33, 35, 43, 46, 54, 59, 112]
Small-scale serology 11d T(4)d, J(4), R(1) 1960s(2), 1970s(4), 1980s(2), 1990s(1), 2010s(2) SAT/CFT(2), SAT(2), RBT(2), NS(2) RBT/SAT/CFT(1), SAT/RIV(1), RBT/CFT(1) NPS(8), PS(2), NS(1) 17,548 (11) 0.3–44.3 >256 (6) 2.7–100 [42, 43, 45, 46, 51, 53, 54, 56, 59]d
Large-scale serology 4 J(1), R(3) 1970s(1), 1980s(1), 1990s(1), 2010s(1) SAT/CFT(1), RBT/CFT(1), RBT/CFT/mELISA/MRT(1), RBT(1) PS?(3), PS(1) 100,733 (4) 2.1–14.1 >4652 (3) 4.6–7.1 [47, 49, 51, 52]
Case reportsa 23d J(1)4, R(13) 1970s(7), 1980s(3), 2000s(8), 2010s(5) NS NPS(23) NA 2–1505 NA NA [44, 113125]d
Small ruminants       55,588     
Bacteriology 3 J(1), R(2) 1990s(3) NA NA >18 (1) NA NA NA [6971]
Small-scale serology 10d T(4)d, J(5) 1960s(1), 1970s(1), 1980s(3), 2000s(2), 2010s(3) RBT(6), NS(2), RBT/CFT/RID/DGD/LFA/cELISA(1) NPS(9), PS(1) >6810 (9) 0–13.4 >301 (8) 0–50 [45, 54, 7985]d
RBT/CFT/cELISA(1)
Large-scale serology 4 J(1), R(3) 1980s(1), 1990s(2), 2000s(1) RBT/CFT/Coombs(1), RBT/CFT(1), RBT(2) NPS(1), PS (2), PS? (1) >48,760 (3) 0–2.5 >831 (2) 0–15.7 [52, 71, 77]
Case reportsa 13 R(13) 2000s(8), 2010s(5) NS NPS (13) NA 0–25 NA NA [113125]
Humans       4704     
Bacteriology/molecular 5 J(5) 1990s(2), 2000s(1), 2010s(2) NA NA >4 (1) NA NA NA [90, 9799, 107]
Serology 3 T(1), J(1), U(1) 1970s(1), 1990s(1), 2010s(1) SAT(1), RBT(1), SAT/Coombs/RBT/Brucellacapt(1) NPS (2), PS (1) 4700 (3) 0–3.3 NA NA [45, 104]
Case reportsa 24d T(1)d, R(8)d 1940s(6), 1950s(3), 1990s(1), 2000s(10), 2010s(4) NS NPS (24) NA 0–42 NA NA [45, 126133]d
  1. aNumber of cases officially reported over a 1 year period
  2. bMost studies used either a single serological test or combinations of multiple serological tests in series, with the exception of [47, 54, 77, 80] (see text)
  3. cNumber of studies which provide information on number of individuals/herds sampled, numerous studies have missing data
  4. dSingle reference/publication reports multiple studies hence discrepancy with number of studies in category
  5. T thesis, J journal, R report, U unpublished, SAT serum agglutination test, CFT complement fixation test, RIV rivanol test, mELISA milk ELISA, MRT milk ring test, RID radial immunodiffusion test, DGD double gel diffusion test, LFA lateral flow assay, cELISA competitive ELISA, Coombs coombs test, NS not specified, NA not applicable, NPS non-probability sampling, PS probability sampling, PS? method poorly described but probability sampling probably applies