Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of all participants by HIV care-seeking statusa

From: HIV care-seeking behaviour after HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study

Variable All Participants
[N = 2383]
n (%)
“Seekers” Subgroup
[n = 380]
n (%)
“Non-Seekers” Subgroup
[n = 2003]
n (%)
P-value
Demographic Characteristics
 Age (years)     0.48
  18–24 649 (27.2) 106 (27.9) 543 (27.1)  
  25–29 841 (35.3) 124 (32.6) 717 (35.8)  
  ≥ 30 893 (37.5) 150 (39.5) 743 (37.1)  
 Education level     0.03
  ≤ High Schoolb 499 (20.9) 95 (25.0) 404 (20.2)  
  ≥ College and above 1884 (79.1) 285 (75.0) 1599 (79.8)  
 Monthly income (CNY)     0.03
  ≤ 5000 997 (41.8) 178 (46.8) 819 (40.9)  
  > 5000 1386 (58.2) 202 (53.2) 1184 (59.1)  
 Duration of residence in Beijing (years)     0.98
  < 2 676 (28.4) 108 (28.4) 568 (28.4)  
  ≥ 2 1707 (71.6) 272 (71.6) 1435 (71.6)  
 Marital status     0.63
  Married 313 (13.1) 47 (12.4) 266 (13.3)  
  Unmarried 2070 (86.9) 333 (87.6) 1737 (86.7)  
 Sexual orientation     0.37
  Homosexual 1775 (74.5) 293 (77.1) 1482 (74.0)  
  Bisexual 604 (25.3) 86 (22.6) 518 (25.9)  
  Unknown/Unsure 4 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 3 (0.1)  
Sexual Behaviour Characteristics
 Number of male anal sex partners in past 3 months    0.07
  < 2 1397 (58.6) 239 (62.9) 1158 (57.8)  
  ≥ 2 986 (41.4) 141 (37.1) 845 (42.2)  
 Condom use with male anal sex partners in past 3 months    0.86
  Always 1105 (62.0) 171 (61.5) 934 (62.1)  
  Inconsistent 678 (38.0) 107 (38.5) 571 (37.9)  
  Missing 600    
Drug Use Behaviour Characteristics
 Drug use ever in lifetime     0.95
  Yes 1082 (45.4) 172 (45.3) 910 (45.4)  
  No 1301 (54.6) 208 (54.7) 1093 (54.6)  
 Anal sex after drug use     0.70
  Yes 927 (38.9) 149 (86.6) 778 (85.5)  
  No 155 (6.5) 23 (13.4) 132 (14.5)  
  No drug use 1301 (54.6)    
 Condom use during anal sex after drug use     0.92
  Always 613 (25.7) 98 (65.8) 515 (66.2)  
  Inconsistent 314 (13.2) 51 (34.2) 263 (33.8)  
  No anal sex after drug use 155 (6.5)    
  No drug use 1301 (54.6)    
Use of HIV Self-Test Kits
 Source of HIV self-test kits     < 0.001
  Internet 1448 (60.8) 182 (47.9) 1266 (63.2)  
  Health facilities 422 (17.7) 102 (26.8) 320 (16.0)  
  NGOs 285 (12.0) 73 (19.2) 212 (10.6)  
  Friends/Other 228 (9.6) 23 (6.1) 205 (10.2)  
 Reason for most recent testing     0.14
  Routine 1154 (48.4) 202 (53.2) 952 (47.5)  
  Had unprotected anal sex 469 (19.7) 76 (20.0) 393 (19.6)  
  Had physical discomfort 165 (6.9) 26 (6.8) 139 (6.9)  
  Going to have a new/lifetime partner 369 (15.5) 45 (11.8) 324 (16.2)  
  To confirm a previous result 129 (5.4) 21 (5.5) 108 (5.4)  
  Other 97 (4.1) 10 (2.6) 87 (4.3)  
 Considered the “window period” in deciding when to testc    0.02
  Yes 1584 (66.5) 269 (70.8) 1315 (65.7)  
  No 426 (17.9) 70 (18.4) 356 (17.8)  
  Don’t know 373 (15.7) 41 (10.8) 332 (16.6)  
 Most recent HIV self-test result     < 0.001
  Non-reactive 2118 (88.9) 351 (92.4) 1767 (88.2)  
  Reactive 30 (1.3) 5 (1.3) 25 (1.2)  
  Uncertain 92 (3.9) 24 (6.3) 68 (3.4)  
  Unknown 143 (6.0) 0 (0.0) 143 (7.1)  
 Sought healthcare for STI symptoms in past 1 year    0.27
  Yes 245 (10.3) 45 (11.8) 200 (10.0)  
  No 2138 (89.7) 335 (88.2) 1803 (90.0)  
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, CNY Chinese Yuan, CDC Centers for Disease Control, NGO non-government organization, STI sexually-transmitted infection
  2. aHIV care seeking was defined as an individual approaching health workers at clinic, hospital, NGO, or CDC venues for the purpose of obtaining further HIV counselling, testing, or other care services, after administering an HIV self-test
  3. bThe category “High School” includes also vocational or technical school
  4. cFor the most recent self-test taken